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Bibliografía

Compendio de bibliografías de los distintos capítulos

En la elaboración de los contenidos de la web de la espalda se han usado criterios y recomendaciones emanados de las siguientes Guías de práctica clínica y publicaciones científicas.

Guías de Práctica Clínica:

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi I, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, Mannion AF, Reis S, Staal B, Ursin H, Zanoli G. . COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for Chronic Low Back Pain. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15:S192-299

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:478-91.

    Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquist RW, Atlas SJ, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Grabois M, Murphy DR, Resnick DK, Stanos SP, Shaffer WO, Wall EM; American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society.Spine 2009;34(10):1066-77.

    Chou R, Huffman LH; American Pain Society; American College of Physicians. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):492-504

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline.Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Haldeman S, Carroll L, Cassidy JD. Findings from the bone and joint decade 2000 to 2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(4):424-7.

    Waddell G, Feder G, McIntosh A, Lewis M, Hutchinson A. Clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. Royal College of General Practitioners, London 1996.

    Bigos S, Bowver O, Braen G, Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline nº 14. AHCPR Publication No. 95-0642. Rockville M: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service. US. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1994.

Referencias Bibliográficas

Además de las citadas guías, otra bibliografía respalda las recomendaciones que se realizan:

Causas del dolor:

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Baras JD, Baker LC. Magnetic resonance imaging and low back pain care for Medicare patients. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6):w1133-40.

    Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med 2001;344(5):363-370.

    Hartvigsen J, Foster NE, Croft PR. We need to rethink front line care for back pain. BMJ 2011 May 25;342:d3260.

    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Bleasel J, et al. Prevalence of and screening for serious spinal pathology in patients presenting to primary care settings with acute low back pain. Arthritis Rheum 2009 Oct;60(10):3072-3080.

    Jarvik JG, Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain with emphasis on imaging. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:586-597.

    Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, Emerson SS, Gray DT, Overman S, et al. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging vs radiographs for patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA2003; 289: 2810–18.

    Lurie JD, Birkmeyer NJ, Weinstein JN. Rates of advanced spinal imaging and spine surgery. Spine2003; 28: 616–20.

    Newman-Toker DE, Pronovost PJ. Diagnostic errors--the next frontier for patient safety. JAMA. 2009;301(10):1060-2.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    Underwood M. Diagnosing acute nonspecific low back pain: time to lower the red flags? Arthritis Rheum 2009;60(10):2855-2857.

    Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2 edition ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2004.

Como aparece el dolor de espalda:

    Akagi H, Konishi S, Otsuka M, Yanagisawa M. The role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the reflexes of slow time courses in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1985;84:663-673.

    Basbaum AI Levine JD. The contribution of the nervous system to inflammation and inflamatory disease. Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol 1991;69:647-651.

    Basile S, Khalil Z, Helme RD. Skin vascular reactivity to the neuropeptide substance P in rats with peripheral mononeuropathy. Pain 1993; 52: 217-22.

    Birch PJ, Harrison SM, Hayes AG, Rogers H, Tyers MB. The non-peptide NK receptor antagonist (±)CP-96,345, produces antinociceptive and anti-oedema effects in the rat. Br. J. Pharmcol. 1992;105:508-510.

    Brodin E, Linderoth B, Cazelius B, Ungerstedt. In vivo release of substance P in cat dorsal horn studied with microdialysis. Neurosci. Lett 1987;76:357-362.

    Coderre TJ, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Neural control of vascular permeability: interactions between primary afferents, mast cells, and sympathetic efferents. J. Neurphysiol. 1989;62:48-58.

    Collingridge GL, Bliss TVP. NMDA receptors -their rol in long-term potentiation. TINS 1987; 10: 288-293.

    Cook AJ, Woolf CJ, Wall PD, McMahon SB. Dynamic receptive field plasticity in rat spinal dorsal horn following C-primary afferent input. Nature(Lond) 1987; 325: 151-153.

    Costa D, Baños JE. Contribución del sistema nervioso central a la fisiopatología del dolor neuropático. Med Clin (Barc) 1993; 101: 591-595.

    Cross SA. Pathophysiology of pain. Mayo Clinic Proc 1994; 69:375-383

    Cuello AC. Peptides as neuromodulators in primary sensory neurons. Neuropharmacology. 1987;7:971-979.

    Cuello C, Kanazawa I. The distribution of substance P immunoreactive fibers in the rat central nervous system. J. Comp. Neurol 1987;178:129-156.

    Garret C, Carruette A, Fardin V, Moussaoui S, Peyronel JF, Blanchard JC, Laduron M. Pharmacological properties of a potent and selective nonpeptide substance P antagonist. Proc. Natl. Acad. USA. 1991;88:10208-10212.

    D'Amour RE, Smith DL. A method for determining loss of pain sensation. J. Pharmacol.  Exp. Therap. 1992;72:74-79

    De Koninck Y, Ribeiro da Silva A, Henry JL, Cuello AC. Spiral neurons exhibiting a specific nociceptive response receive abundant substance P-containing synaptic contacts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1992;89:5073-5077.

    Duggan AW, Hendry JA, Morton CR, Hutchison WD, Zhao ZQ. Cutaneous stimuli releasing immunoreactive subtance P in the dorsal horn of the cat. Brain Res. 1988;451:262-265.

    Fields HL. Pain. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.

    Go VLW, Yaksh TL. Release of substance P from the cat spinal cord. J. Physiol (Lond)1987;391:141-167.

    Henry JL, Krnjevic K, Morris E. Substance P and spinal neurones. Can J. Phisiol. Pharmacol. 1975;53:423-432.

    Henry JL. Effects of substance P on functionally identified units in cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1976;114:439-451.

    Henry JL, Sessle BJ Lucier GE Hu JW. Effects of substance P on nociceptive and non-nociceptive trigeminal brain stem neurons. Pain 1980;8:33-45.

    Henry JL. Relation of substance P to pain transmission: neurophysiological evidence. Ciba. Found Symp. 1982;9:206-224.

    Henry JL. Substance P antiinflammatory pain: potential of substance P antagonists as analgesics. Agents Actions. 1993; 41 (suppl):75-87.

    Hökfelt T, Kellerth O, Nilsson G, Pernow B. Substance P: localitation in the central nervous system and in some primary sensory neurons. Science 1975;190:889-891.
    Korr IM, Thomas PE, Wright HM. Symposium on the functional implications of segmental facilitation. J Amer Ostepath Assoc 1955; 54: 1-18.

    Kowalsky ML, SliwinskaKowalska M, Kaliner MA. Neurogenic inflammation, vascular permeability, and mast cells II. Additional evidence indicating that mast cells are not involved in neurogenic inflammation. J Immunol 1990; 145: 1214 - 21.

    Kumazawa T, Perl ER. Primate cutaneous receptors with unmyelinated (c) afferent projection to the substantia gelatinosa. J. Physiol Paris 1977;73:287-304.

    Lawrence KB, Venepalli BR, Appell KC, Goswami R, Logan ME, Tomczuk BE, Yanni JM. Synthesis and substance P antagonist activity of naphthimidazollum derivatives. J. Med Chem 1992;35:1273-1279.

    Lembeck F, Donnerer J, Tsuchiya M, Nagahisa A. The non-peptide tachykinin antagonist, CP-96,345, is a potent inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1992;105:527-530.

    Le Vasseur SA, Gibson SJ, Jelme RD. The measurement of capsaicin sensitive sensory nerve fiber function in elderly patients with pain. Pain 1990; 41: 19 - 25.

    Light AR, Perl ER. Spinal termination of functionally identified primay afferent neurons with slowly conducting myelinated fibers. J. Comp. Neurol 1979;186:133-150.

    Lynn B, Shakhanbeh J. Neurogenic inflammation in the skin of the rabbit. AgentsActions 1988; 25 : 228 - 30.

    Mayer EA, Raybould H, Koelbel C. Neuropeptides, inflammation and motility. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33: 71S - 77S.

    Morton CR, Hutchinson WD. Release of sensory neuropeptides in the spinal cord: studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide and galanin. Neuroscience 1989 31: 807 - 15.

    Nagahisa A, Y Kanai Y, Suga O, Taniguchi K, Tsuchiya M, Lowe JA. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activity of a non-peptide substance P receptor antagonist. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1992;217:191-195.

    Nicoll RA, Schenker C and Leeman SE. Substance P as a transmitter candidate. Ann Rev. Neurosci 1980;3:227-268.

    Nussbaumer JC, Yanagisawa M, Otsuka M. Pharmacological properties of a C-fibre response evoked by saphenous nerve stimulation in an isolated spinal cord-nerve preparation of the newborn rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1989;98:373-382.

    Otsuka M, Yanagisawa M. Effects of a tachykinin antagonist on a nociceptive reflex in the isolated spinal cord-tail preparation of the newborn rat. J. Physiol. (Lond)1988;395:255-270.

    Otsuka M, Yanagisawa. Pain and neurotransmitters. Cell Mol. Neurbiol. 1990;10:293-302.

    Pedersen-Bejergaard U, Nielsen LB, Jensen K, Edvinsson L, Jansen I, Olesen J. Algesia and local responses indiced by neurokinin A and substance P in human skin and temporal muscle. Peptides 1989;10:1147-1152.

    Pedersen-Bejergaard U, Nielsen LB, Jensen K, Edvinsson L, Jansen I, Olesen J. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurokinin a and substance P: Effects on nociception and neurogenic inflammation in human skin and temporal muscle. Peptides 1991;12:333-337.

    Piercey MF, Einspahr FJ. Use of substance P partial fragments to characterize substance P receptors of cat dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res. 1980;187:481-486.

    Radhakrishnan V, Henry JL. Novel substance P antagonist, CP-96, 345, blocks responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to noxious cutaneous stimulation and to substance P. Neurosci. Lett. 1991;132:39-43.

    Randic M, Miletic V. Effects of substance P in cat dorsal horn neurones activated by noxious stimuli. Brain Res. 1977;128:164-169.

    Ruda MA, Bennett, Dubner R. Neurochemistry and neural circuitry in the dorsal horn. In peptides and neurological disease. Prog. Brain Res., Vol 66 (Eds. P. C. Emson, M. Rossoe and M. Tohyama)pp. 219-268, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam 1986.

    Sastry BR, Substance P effects on spinal nociceptive neurones. Life Sci. 1979;24:2169-2178.

    Sugiura Y. LeeCL, Perl ER. Central projections of identified, unmyelinated (c) afferent fibers innervating mammalian skin. Science 1986;234:358-361.

    Takahashi T, Otsuka M. Regional distribution of substance P in the spinal cord and nerve roots of tha cat and the effect of dorsal root section. Brain Res. 1975;87:1-11.

    Theriault E, Otsuka M, Jessell T. Capsaicin-evoked release of substance P from primary sensory neurons. Brain Res. 1979;170:209-213.

    Thompson SWN, Woolf CJ. Primary afferent-evoked prolonged potentials in the spinal cord and their central summation :role of the NMDA receptor. In: Bond MR, Charlton JE, Woolf CJ editores. Proceedings of the VIth World Congress on Pain. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1991; 291-297.

    Wilcox GL. Excitatory neurotransmitters and pain. En: Bond MR, Charlton JE, Woolf CJ editores.  Proceedings of the Vith World Congress on Pain. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1991;97-117.

    Woolf CJ, Thompson SWN. The induction and maintenance of central sensitization is dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor activation; implications for the treatment on post-injury pain hypersensitivity states. Pain 1991;44:293-299.

    Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Stereospecific effects of a nonpeptidic NKl selective antagonist, CP-96,345: Antinociception in the absence of motor dysfunction. Life Sci. 1991;49:1955-1963.

    Yashpal K, Wright DM, Henry JL. Substance P reduces tall-flick latency: implications for chronic pain syndromes. Pain 1982;14:155-167.

    Yashpal K, Henry JL. Endorphins mediate overshoot of substance P-induced facilitation of a spinal nociceptive reflex. Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1983;61:303-307.

    Yashpal K, Henry JL. Substance P analogue blocks SP-induced facilitation of a spinal nociceptive reflex. Brain Res. Bull 1984;13:597-600.

    Yashpal K, Dam TV, Quirion R. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of multiple neurokinin binding sites in rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1990;506:259-266.

    Yashpal K, Dam TV, Quirion R. Effects of dorsal rhizotomy on neurokinin receptor sub-types in the rat spinal Cord: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Brain Res. 1991;552:240-247.

    Yashal K, Radhakrishnan V, Coderre TJ, Henry JL. CP-96,345, but not its stereoisomer, CP-96,344, blocks the nociceptive responses to intrathecally administered substance P and to noxious thermal and chemical stimuli in the rat. Neuroscience 1993; 52: 1039-1047.

Síndromes mecánicos inespecíficos:

Qué son

    Schellingerhout JM, Heymans MW, Verhagen AP, Lewis M, de Vet HCW, Koes BW Prognosis of Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain. Development and External Validation of a Prediction Rule for Persistence of Complaints. Spine 2010;35:E827–E835

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Ostelo R, van Tulder MW, Peul W, Koes BW, Verhagen AP. No additional value of fusion techniques on anterior discectomy for neck pain: a systematic review. Pain 2012;153(11):2167-73.

    Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2 edition ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2004.

Como se producen
Síntomas:

    Cheng LFan WLiu BWang XNie L Th17 lymphocyte levels are higher in patients with ruptured than non-ruptured lumbar discs, and are correlated with pain intensity. Injury. 2013 May 13. pii: S0020-1383(13)00187-3. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2013.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]

    Crombez G, Vlaeyen JW, Heuts PH, Lysens R. Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic back pain disability. Pain 1999;80(1-2):329-39

    Dahm KT, Brurberg KG, Jamtvedt G, Hagen KB. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jun 16;(6):CD007612. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007612.pub2.

    Egeland NGMoen APedersen LMBrisby HGjerstad J. Spinal nociceptive hyperexcitability induced by experimental disc herniation is associated with enhanced local expression of Csf1 and FasL. Pain. 2013 May 24. pii: S0304-3959(13)00273-X. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.034. [Epub ahead of print]

    Field S, Treleaven J, Jull G. Standing balance: a comparison between idiopathic and whiplash-induced neck pain. Man Ther 2008;13:183–91.

    Hopayian KSong FRiera RSambandan S. The clinical features of the piriformis syndrome: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2010 ;19(12):2095-109.

    Jankovic DPeng Pvan Zundert A. Brief review: Piriformis syndrome: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Can J Anaesth. 2013 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]

    Karayannis NV, Smeets RJ, van den Hoorn W, Hodges PW. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain. PLoS One. 2013 27;8(6):e67779.

    Kepler, Christopher K. MD, MBA; Markova, Dessislava Z. PhD; Hilibrand, Alan S. MD; Vaccaro, Alexander R. MD, PhD; Risbud, Makarand V. PhD; Albert, Todd J. MD; Anderson, D. Greg MD Substance P Stimulates Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Disc Cells. Spine 2013;38:E1291–E1299.

    Kobayashi S, Yoshizawa H, Yamada S. Pathology of lumbar nerve root compression. Part 2: morphological and immunohistochemical changes of dorsal root ganglion. J Orthop Res 2004;22(1):180-8.

    Kobayashi S, Kokubo Y, Uchida K, Yayama T, Takeno K, Negoro K, Nakajima H, Baba H, Yoshizawa H. Effect of lumbar nerve root compression on primary sensory neurons and their central branches: changes in the nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin. Spine 2005;30(3):276-82

    Kokubo Y, Uchida K, Kobayashi S, Yayama T, Sato R, Nakajima H, Takamura T, Mwaka E, Orwotho N, Bangirana A, Baba H. Herniated and spondylotic intervertebral discs of the human cervical spine: histological and immunohistological findings in 500 en bloc surgical samples. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;9(3):285-95

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Zamora J, Gil del Real MT, Llobera J, Fernández C, and the Kovacs-Atención Primaria Group. Correlation between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with common low back pain. Spine 2004;29(2):206-210.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Zamora J, Fernández C and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The transition from acute to subacute and chronic low back pain. A study based on determinants of quality of life and prediction of chronic disability. Spine 2005;30(15):1786-1792

    Kovacs FM, Muriel A, Abraira V, et al. The influence of fear avoidance beliefs on disability and quality of life is sparse in Spanish low back pain patients. Spine 2005;30:E676-E682

    Kovacs F, Abraira V, Cano A, Royuela A, Gil del Real MT, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N, Muriel A, Zamora J, Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Fear Avoidance Beliefs do not influence disability and quality of life in Spanish elderly subjects with low back pain. Spine 2007;32:2133-2138.

    Kovacs FM, Muriel A, Castillo Sánchez MD, Medina JM, Royuela A and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Fear avoidance beliefs influence duration of sick leave in Spanish low back pain patients. Spine 2007;32:1761–1766.

    Kovacs F, Abraira V, Santos S, et al. A Comparison of Two Short Education Programs for Improving Low Back Pain-Related Disability in the Elderly. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Spine 2007;32:1053–1059

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Alegre L, Cano A etal. Minimal clinically important change for pain intensity and disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976 ) 2007; 32:2915-2920.

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll, J, Peña A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The prognostic value of catastrophizing for predicting the clinical evolution of low back pain patients. A study in routine clinical practice within the Spanish National Health Service [NCT00502333]. Spine J 2012;12:545-555

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Melis S, Sánchez C, Díaz-Arribas MJ, Meli M, Núñez M, Martínez-Rodríguez ME, Fernández C, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N, Moyá J, Rodríguez-Pérez V, Torres-Unda J, Burgos-Alonso N, Gago-Fernández I, Abraira V. Patients with neck pain are less likely to improve if theyexperience poor sleep quality: a prospective study inroutine practice. Clin J Pain. 2015 Aug;31(8):713-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153781

    Miller TAWhite KPRoss DC. The diagnosis and management of Piriformis Syndrome: myths and facts. Can J Neurol Sci. 2012;39(5):577-83.

    Morinaga TTakahashi KYamagata MChiba TTanaka KTakahashi YNakamura SSuseki KMoriya H. Sensory innervation to the anterior portion of lumbar intervertebral disc. Spine 1996;21(16):1848-51.

    Ohtori STakahashi KChiba TYamagata MSameda HMoriya H. Sensory innervation of the dorsal portion of the lumbar intervertebral discs in rats. Spine 2001;26(8):946-50.

    Ohtori SInoue GKoshi TIto TWatanabe TYamashita MYamauchi KSuzuki MDoya HMoriya HTakahashi YTakahashi K. Sensory innervation of lumbar vertebral bodies in rats. Spine 2007;32(14):1498-502.

    Palmgren TGrönblad MVirri JSeitsalo SRuuskanen MKaraharju E. Immunohistochemical demonstration of sensory and autonomic nerve terminals in herniated lumbardisc tissue. Spine 1996;21(11):1301-6.

    Picavet HS, Vlaeyen JW, Schouten JS. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia: predictors of chronic low back pain. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156(11):1028-34.

    Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine 2002;27:E109-E120.
    Moix J, Kovacs FM, Martín A, Plana MN, Royuela A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Catastrophizing, state-anxiety, anger and depressive symptoms do not correlate with disability when variations of trait-anxiety are taken into account. A study of chronic low back pain patients treated in Spanish pain units [NCT00360802]. Pain Med 2011;12:1008–1017.

    Poole E, Treleaven J, Jull G. The influence of neck pain on balance and gait parameters in community-dwelling elders. Man Ther 2008;13:317–24.

    Ruhe A, Fejer R, Walker B. Altered postural sway in patients suffering from non-specific neck pain and whiplash associated disorder - A systematic review of the literature. Chiropr Man Therap 2011;19:13.

    Sameda HTakahashi YTakahashi KChiba TOhtori SMoriya H. Dorsal root ganglion neurones with dichotomising afferent fibres to both the lumbar disc and the groin skin. A possible neuronal mechanism underlying referred groin pain in lower lumbar disc diseases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003;85(4):600-3.

    Swinkels-Meewisse IE, Roelofs J, Schouten EG, Verbeek AL, Oostendorp RA, Vlaeyen JW. Fear of movement/(re)injury predicting chronic disabling low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study. Spine 2006;31(6):658-64.

    Taguchi THoheisel UMense S. Dorsal horn neurons having input from low back structures in rats. Pain 2008;138(1):119-29.

    Treleaven J. Sensorimotor disturbances in neck disorders affecting postural stability, head and eye movement control. Man Ther 2008;13:2–11

    Uthaikhup S, Jull G, Sungkarat S, et al. The influence of neck pain on sensorimotor function in the elderly.  Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012;55:667–72.

    Verbunt JA, Seelen HA, Vlaeyen JW, van der Heijden GJ, Knottnerus JA. Fear of injury and physical deconditioning in patients with chronic low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(8):1227-32

    Wrisley DMSparto PJWhitney SLFurman JM. Cervicogenic dizziness: a review of diagnosis and treatment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000;30(12):755-66.

Diagnóstico:

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300.

    Baras JD, Baker LC. Magnetic resonance imaging and low back pain care for Medicare patients. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6):w1133-40.

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, Shekelle P, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-189.

    Chou D, Samartzis D, Bellabarba C, Patel A, Luk KD, Kisser JM, Skelly AC. Degenerative magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Spine 2011;36(21 Suppl):S43-53.

    Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med 2001;344(5):363-370.

    Fairbank JHashimoto RDailey APatel AADettori JR. Does patient history and physical examination predict MRI proven cauda equina syndrome? Evid Based Spine Care J. 2011;2(4):27-33.

    Flynn TW, Smith B, Chou R. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging in low back pain: a reminder that unnecessary imaging may do as much harm as good. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2011 Nov;41(11):838-846.

    Hartvigsen J, Foster NE, Croft PR. We need to rethink front line care for back pain. BMJ 2011 May 25;342:d3260.

    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Bleasel J, et al. Prevalence of and screening for serious spinal pathology in patients presenting to primary care settings with acute low back pain. Arthritis Rheum 2009 Oct;60(10):3072-3080.

    Jarvik JG, Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain with emphasis on imaging. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:586-597.

    Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, Emerson SS, Gray DT, Overman S, et al. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging vs radiographs for patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA2003; 289: 2810–18.

    Lurie JD, Birkmeyer NJ, Weinstein JN. Rates of advanced spinal imaging and spine surgery. Spine2003; 28: 616–20.

    Newman-Toker DE, Pronovost PJ. Diagnostic errors--the next frontier for patient safety. JAMA. 2009;301(10):1060-2.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    Underwood M. Diagnosing acute nonspecific low back pain: time to lower the red flags? Arthritis Rheum 2009;60(10):2855-2857.

    Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2 edition ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2004.
Riesgos:
Tratamiento:

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300.

    Boselie TF, Willems PC, van Mameren H, de Bie RA, Benzel EC, van Santbrink H. Arthroplasty versus fusion in single-level cervical degenerative disc disease: a Cochrane review. Spine 2013;38(17):E1096-107.

    Carragee EJ, Don AS, Hurwitz EL, Cuellar JM, Carrino J, Herzog R 2009 ISSLS Prize Winner: Does Discography Cause Accelerated Progression of Degeneration Changes in the Lumbar Disc. A Ten-Year Matched Cohort Study.Spine 2009;34:2338–2345

    Carragee EJ, Deyo RA, Kovacs FM, Wilco CP, Lurie JD, Urrútia G. Clinical research. Is the spine field a mine field? Spine 2009;34:423-430

    Carragee EJGhanayem AJWeiner BKRothman DJBono CM A challenge to integrity in spine publications: years of living dangerously with the promotion of bone growth factors. Spine J. 2011;11(6):463-8.

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, Shekelle P, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-189.

    Chou D, Samartzis D, Bellabarba C, Patel A, Luk KD, Kisser JM, Skelly AC. Degenerative magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Spine 2011;36(21 Suppl):S43-53.

    Diario Médico. La Sermef cuestiona la validez del estudio sobre gasto en rehabilitación. Diario Médico del 22 de febrero de 2012, disponible en http://www.diariomedico.com/2012/02/24/area-profesional/sanidad/sermef-cuestiona-validez-estudio-gasto-rehabilitacion, visitada el 15 de agosto de 2013

    Diario Médico. Duras réplicas a la Sermef después de sus acusaciones. Diario Médico del 27 de febrero de 2012, disponible en http://www.diariomedico.com/2012/02/27/area-profesional/sanidad/duras-replicas-sermef-despues-acusaciones, visitada el 15 de agosto de 2013

    Gibson JN, Waddell G. Surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylosis; Updated Cochrane review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD001352. Review.

    Jacobs WCH, van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC , Tuschel A, de Kleuver  M, Peul WC, Verbout AJ, Oner FC Total Disc Replacement for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Cochrane Review. Spine 2013; 38 : 24 – 36

    Jacobs W, Willems PC, van Limbeek J, Bartels R, Pavlov P, Anderson PG, Oner C. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD004958. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004958.pub2. Review

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    Serrano-Aguilar P, Kovacs FM, Cabrera-Hernández JM, Ramos-Goñi JM, García-Pérez L.  Avoidable costs of physical treatments for chronic back, neck and shoulder pain within the Spanish National Health Service: a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011;12:287 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-287

    Willems Pde Bie ROner CCastelein Rde Kleuver M. Clinical decision making in spinal fusion for chronic low back pain: Results of a nationwide survey among spine surgeons, BMJ Open, 2011;1:e000391. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000391

    Willems PC, Staal JB, Walenkamp GH, de Bie RA. Spinal fusion for chronic low back pain: systematic review on the accuracy of tests for patient selection. Spine J 2013;13(2):99-109.

Alteraciones estructurales de la columna vertebral

Anomalías de transición lumbosacra

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Bron JL, van Royen BJ, Wuisman PI. The clinical significance of lumbosacral transitional anomalies. Acta Orthop Belg. 2007;73(6):687-95.

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou R, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Resnick DK, Shaffer WO, Loeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Roland M, van Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

Escoliosis

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Bas P, Romagnoli M, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Bas JL, Villar-Aura J, Franco N, Bas T Beneficial effects of aerobic training in adolescent patients with moderate idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J (2011) 20 (Suppl 3):S415–S419

    Buchanan R, Birch JG, Morto AA, Browne RH ( 2003) Do You See What I See? Looking at Scoliosis Surgical Outcomes Through Orthopedists’ Eyes. Spine, 28:2700–2705

    Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH, Moulton A, Grivas TB, Cheng JC. Whither the etiopathogenesis (and scoliogeny) of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Incorporating presentations on scoliogeny at the 2012 IRSSD and SRS meetings. Scoliosis. 2013 Feb 28;8(1):4.

    Choi BK, Verbeek JH, Tam WW, Jiang JY. Exercises for prevention of recurrences of low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD006555.

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou R, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Resnick DK, Shaffer WO, Loeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, Shekelle P, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-189.

    Clough M, Justice CM, Marosy B, Miller NH. Males with familial idiopathic scoliosis: a distinct phenotypic subgroup. Spine  2010 Jan 15;35(2):162-8.

    Danielsson AJ, Hasserius R, Ohlin A, Nachemson AL ( 2010) Health-Related Quality of Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. A Long-term Follow-up .Spine , 35:199–205

    Fendri K, Patten SA, Kaufman GN, Zaouter C, Parent S, Grimard G, Edery P, Moldovan F Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in Adolescent IdiopathicScoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2013 Jun;22(6):1300-11.

    Fusco C, Zaina F, Atanasio S, Romano M, Negrini A, Negrini S. Physical exercises in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: An updated systematic review. Physiother Theory Pract. 2011;27(1):80-114.

    Gorman KF, Julien C, Moreau A. The genetic epidemiology of idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2012 Oct;21(10):1905-19.

    Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malvaara A, Koes BW. Exercise therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005, Jul 20; (3): CD00335.

    Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Tomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(9):776-85.

    Howard A, Donaldson S, Hedden D,  Stephens D, Alman B, Wright J ( 2007) Improvement in Quality of Life Following Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine , 32:2715–2718.

    Kenanidis E, Potoupnis ME, Papavasiliou KA, Sayegh FE, Kapetanos GA. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Exercising Is There Truly a Liaison? Spine 2008;33:2160–2165

    Kovacs FM., Gestoso M, Gil del Real MT, López J, Mufraggi N, Méndez JI. Risk factors for non-specific low back pain in schoolchildren and their parents: a population based study. Pain 2003;103:259-268

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  Spine J 2012;12:1008-1020

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll, J, Peña A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The prognostic value of catastrophizing for predicting the clinical evolution of low back pain patients. A study in routine clinical practice within the Spanish National Health Service [NCT00502333]. Spine J 2012;12:545-555

    Loder RT, Spiegel D, Gutknecht S, Kleist K,  Ly T, Mehbod A ( 2004)  The Assessment of Intraobserver and Interobserver Error in the Measurement of Noncongenital Scoliosis in Children < 10 Years of Age. Spine , 29:2548–2553

    Michael A, Loughenbury P , Rao A, Dunsmuir R ,  Millner P. A Survey of Current Controversies in Scoliosis Surgery in the United Kingdom. Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1573 – 1578.

    Nason GJ, Baker JF, Byrne DP, Noel  J, Moore D, Kiely PJ. Scoliosis-Specific Information on the Internet. Has the “Information Highway” Led to Better Information Provision?. Spine 2012 ; 37 : E1364 – E1369.

    Negrini S, Minozzi S, Bettany-Saltikov J, Zaina F, Chockalingam N, Grivas TB, Kotwicki T, Maruyama T, Romano M,  Vasiliadis ES ( 2010). Braces for Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents. Spine , 35:1285–1293

    Parent EC, Wong D, Hill D, Mahood J, Moreau M, Raso VJ, Lou E ( 2010) The Association Between Scoliosis Research Society-22 Scores and Scoliosis Severity Changes at a Clinically Relevant Threshold. Spine, 35:315–322

    Reames DL, Smith JS, Fu KMG, Polly DW, Ames CP, Berven SH, Perra JH, Glassman SD, McCarthy RE, Knapp RD, Heary R, Shaffrey CI, and Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee Complications in the Surgical Treatment of 19,360 Cases of Pediatric Scoliosis A Review of the Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Database. Spine 2011;36:1484–1491

    Roland M, van Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Romano M, Minozzi S, Zaina F, Bettany Saltikov J, Chockalingam N, Kotwicki T, Hennes AM, Negrini S. Exercises for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. A Cochrane Systematic Review. Spine 2013 ;38:E883–E893

    Rowe DE, Bernstein SM, Riddick MF, Adler F, Emans JB, Gardner-Bonneau D. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-operative treatments for idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997;79(5):664-74.

    Rushton P, Grevitt M. Comparison of Untreated Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis With Normal Controls. A Review and Statistical Analysis of the Literature. SPINE 2013,Volume 38, Number 9, pp 778–785

    Rushton P, Grevitt M. What Is the Effect of Surgery on the Quality of Life of the Adolescent With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis?.A Review and Statistical Analysis of the Literature. SPINE 2013, Volume 38, Number 9, pp 786–794

    Sánchez-Mariscal F, Gómez-Rice A, Izquierdo E, Pizones J, Zúñiga L, Álvarez-González P. Correlation of Radiographic and Functional Measurements in Patients Who Underwent Primary Scoliosis Surgery in Adult Age. Spine 2012;37:592–598

    Sanders JOI Haynes R, Lighter D, Niederpruem M, Hollenback C, Johnson L, Nomura S, Arndt D, Bush P, Santiago J, King R, Trottier T Variation in Care Among Spinal Deformity Surgeons Results of a Survey of the Shriners Hospitals for Children. Spine 2007;32:1444–1449

    Schellingerhout JM, Heymans MW, Verhagen AP, Lewis M, de Vet HCW, Koes BW Prognosis of Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain. Development and External Validation of a Prediction Rule for Persistence of Complaints. Spine 2010;35:E827–E835

    Tanchev PI, Dzherov AD, Parushev AD, Dikov DM, Todorov MB. Scoliosis in rhythmic gymnasts. Spine 2000;25(11):1367-72.

    Acs SOSORT guideline committee, Weiss HR, Negrini S,Rigo M, Kotwicki T, Hawes MC, Grivas TB, Maruyama T, Landauer F ( 2006) Indications for conservative management of scoliosis (guidelines)Scoliosis , 1:5 doi:10.1186/1748-7161-1-5 http://www.scoliosisjournal.com/content/1/1/5

    Urrutia J, Espinosa J, Diaz-Ledezma C, Cabello C. The impact of lumbar scoliosis on pain, function and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. Eur Spine J 2011;20(12):2223-7.

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Kuijpers T, Verhagen AP, Ostelo R, Koes BW, van Tulder MW.A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(1):19-39

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Ostelo R, van Tulder MW, Peul W, Koes BW, Verhagen AP. No additional value of fusion techniques on anterior discectomy for neck pain: a systematic review. Pain 2012;153(11):2167-73.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 1:S82-92

    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, Koes B, Laerum E, Malmivaara A; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 2:S169-91.

    Weinstein SL. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: prevalence and natural history. In: Weinstein SL, editor. The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice. New York: Raven Press; 1994. pp. 463–78.

    Weinstein SL. Natural history. Spine 1999, 24:2592-2600.

    Weinstein S L., Dolan LA, Spratt KF, Peterson KK, Spoonamore MJ, Ponseti IV (2003) Health and Function of Patients With Untreated Idiopathic Scoliosis. A 50-Year Natural History Study. JAMA,289:559-567

    Weinstein SL, Dollan LA, Wright JG, Dobbs MB. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med 2013;369(16):1512-21

Hipercifosis

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Bansal SKatzman WBGiangregorio LM. Exercise for Improving Age-Related Hyperkyphotic Posture: A Systematic Review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Jul 9. pii: S0003-9993(13)00514-5. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.06.022. [Epub ahead of print]

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Harreby M, Neergaard K, Hesselsoe G, Kjer J. Are radiologic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescents risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine 1995;20: 2298-2302.

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  Spine J 2012;12:1008-1020

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 1:S82-92

    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, Koes B, Laerum E, Malmivaara A; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 2:S169-91.

Hiperlordosis

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    de Oliveira Pezzan PAJoão SMRibeiro APManfio EF. Postural assessment of lumbar lordosis and pelvic alignment angles in adolescent users and nonusers of high-heeled shoes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011;34(9):614-21.

    Harreby M, Neergaard K, Hesselsoe G, Kjer J. Are radiologic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescents risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine 1995;20: 2298-2302.

    Keorochana GTaghavi CELee KBYoo JHLiao JCFei ZWang JC. Effect of sagittal alignment on kinematic changes and degree of disc degeneration in the lumbar spine: an analysis using positional MRI. Spine. 2011;36(11):893-8.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Liebetrau APuta CSchinowski DWulf TWagner H. [Is there a correlation between back pain and stability of the lumbar spine in pregnancy? A model-based hypothesis]. Schmerz. 2012;26(1):36-45

    Masharawi YDar GPeleg SSteinberg NMedlej BMay HAbbas JHershkovitz I. A morphological adaptation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae to lumbar hyperlordosis in young adult females. Eur Spine J. 2010;19(5):768-73.

    Matsuyama YHasegawa YYoshihara HTsuji TSakai YNakamura HKawakami NKanemura TYukawa YIshiguro N. Hip-spine syndrome: total sagittal alignment of the spine and clinical symptoms in patients with bilateral congenital hip dislocation. Spine  2004;29(21):2432-7.

    Miyazaki MHymanson HJMorishita YHe WZhang HWu GKong MHTsumura HWang JC. Kinematic analysis of the relationship between sagittal alignment and disc degeneration in the cervical spine. Spine 2008;33(23):E870-6.

    Olmedo-Buenrostro BA, Trujillo-Hernández B, Pérez-Vargas FD, Díaz-Giner VR, Delgado-Enciso I, Muñiz-Murguía J, Huerta M, Trujillo X, Mora-Brambila AB, Vásquez C. [Comparison of three therapeutic exercises protocols to lumbar hyperlordosis improvement in asyntomatic youths]. Rev Invest Clin. 2010;62(6):568-76

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Russell BS The effect of high-heeled shoes on lumbar lordosis: a narrative review and discussion of the disconnect between Internet content and peer-reviewed literature. J Chiropr Med. 2010;9(4):166-73.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    Scannell JPMcGill SM.Lumbar posture--should it, and can it, be modified? A study of passive tissue stiffness and lumbar position during activities of daily living. Phys Ther. 2003;83(10):907-17.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 1:S82-92

    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, Koes B, Laerum E, Malmivaara A; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 2:S169-91.

    Vialle RKhouri NGlorion CLechevallier JMorin C. Lumbar hyperlordosis of neuromuscular origin: pathophysiology and surgical strategy for correction. Int Orthop 2007;31(4):513-23.
Rectificaciones

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, Shekelle P, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-189.

    Harrison DDHarrison DEJanik TJCailliet RFerrantelli JRHaas JWHolland B. Modeling of the sagittal cervical spine as a method to discriminate hypolordosis: results of elliptical and circular modeling in 72 asymptomatic subjects, 52 acute neck pain subjects, and 70 chronic neck pain subjects. Spine. 2004;29(22):2485-92.

    Harreby M, Neergaard K, Hesselsoe G, Kjer J. Are radiologic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescents risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine 1995;20: 2298-2302

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  Spine J 2012;12:1008-1020

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll, J, Peña A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The prognostic value of catastrophizing for predicting the clinical evolution of low back pain patients. A study in routine clinical practice within the Spanish National Health Service [NCT00502333]. Spine J 2012;12:545-555

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Miyazaki MHymanson HJMorishita YHe WZhang HWu GKong MHTsumura HWang JC. Kinematic analysis of the relationship between sagittal alignment and disc degeneration in the cervical spine. Spine 2008;33(23):E870-6.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 1:S82-92

    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, Koes B, Laerum E, Malmivaara A; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 2:S169-91.

    Wojtys EM, Ashton-Miller JA, Huston LJ, Moga PJ. The association between athletic training time and the sagittal curvature of the immature spine. Am J Sports Med 2000;4(29):490-498.
Espondilolisis

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Beutler WJ, Fredrickson BE, Murtland A, Sweeney CA, Grant WD, Baker D. The natural history of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: 45-year follow-up evaluation. Spine 2003;28(10):1027-35

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine 2009;34(10):1078-93

    Gross AR, Goldsmith C, Hoving JL, Haines T, Peloso P, Aker P, Santaguida P, Myers C; Cervical Overview Group. Conservative management of mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2007 May;34(5):1083-102

    Jacobs WCH, van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC , Tuschel A, de Kleuver  M, Peul WC, Verbout AJ, Oner FC Total Disc Replacement for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Cochrane Review. Spine 2013; 38 : 24 – 36

    Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Eur Spine J. 2008;17(3):327-35.

    Kalichman L, Li L, Kim HD, et al. Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Low Back Pain in the Community-Based Population Spine 2008;33:2560–2565.

    Kalichman L, Kim HD, Li L, Guermazi A, Berkin V, Hunter DJ. Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis Prevalence and Association With Low Back Pain in the Adult Community-Based Population. Spine 2009;34:199–205.

    Kalichman L, Hodges P, Li L, Guermazi A, Hunter DJ. Changes in paraspinal muscles and their association with low back pain and spinal degeneration: CT study. Eur Spine J. 2010 Jul;19(7):1136-44.

    Kalichman L, Kim DH, Li L, Guermazi A, Hunter DJ. Computed tomography-evaluated features of spinal degeneration: prevalence, intercorrelation, and association with self-reported low back pain. Spine J. 2010 Mar;10(3):200-8.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, Trinh K, Goldsmith Ch, Burnie S; Cervical Overview Group.Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD000319

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Schellingerhout JM, Heymans MW, Verhagen AP, Lewis M, de Vet HCW, Koes BW Prognosis of Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain. Development and External Validation of a Prediction Rule for Persistence of Complaints. Spine 2010;35:E827–E835

     Ward CVLatimer B.Human evolution and the development of spondylolysis. Spine 2005;30(16):1808-14.

Espondilolistesis

    Beutler WJ, Fredrickson BE, Murtland A, Sweeney CA, Grant WD, Baker D. The natural history of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: 45-year follow-up evaluation. Spine 2003;28(10):1027-35

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Hagenmaier FH, Delawi D, Verschoor N, Oner CF, van Susante JL  No correlation between slip reduction in low-grade spondylolisthesis or change in neuroforaminal morphology and clinical outcome BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013, 14:245 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-245

    Jacobs WCH, van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC , Tuschel A, de Kleuver  M, Peul WC, Verbout AJ, Oner FC Total Disc Replacement for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Cochrane Review. Spine 2013; 38 : 24 – 36

    Jacobs WCH, Rubinstein SM, Willems PC, Moojen WA, Pellisé F, Oner CG, Peul WC, van Tulder MW. The evidence on surgical interventions for low back disorders, an overview of systematic reviews. Eur Spine J 2013; DOI 10.1007/s00586-013-2823-4

    Kalichman L, Kim HD, Li L, Guermazi A, Berkin V, Hunter DJ. Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis Prevalence and Association With Low Back Pain in the Adult Community-Based Population. Spine 2009;34:199–205.

    Kalichman L, Hodges P, Li L, Guermazi A, Hunter DJ. Changes in paraspinal muscles and their association with low back pain and spinal degeneration: CT study. Eur Spine J. 2010 Jul;19(7):1136-44.

    Kalichman L, Kim DH, Li L, Guermazi A, Hunter DJ. Computed tomography-evaluated features of spinal degeneration: prevalence, intercorrelation, and association with self-reported low back pain. Spine J. 2010 Mar;10(3):200-8.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Virta L, Rönnemaa T. The association of mild-moderate isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis and low back pain in middle-aged patients is weak and it only occurs in women. Spine 1993;18(11):1496-503.
Degeneración discal y artrosis vertebral (o "espondiloartrosis")

    Abdu WA, Lurie JD, Spratt KF, et al. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine 2009;34:2351–2360.

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Arana E, Royuela A, Kovacs FM, Estremera A, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Martínez C, Muriel A, Abraria V, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J, Campillo C. Agreement in the interpretation of 1.5T Magnetic Resonance images of the lumbar spine using the Nordic Modic Consensus Group Classification form. Radiology 2010; 254:809–817

    Arana E, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Estremera A, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Martínez C, Muriel A, Abraira V, Zamora J, Campillo C. The influence of nomenclature in the interpretation of lumbar disk contour on MRI: A comparison of the agreement using the Combined Task Force and the Nordic nomenclatures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2011;32:1143– 48

    Arana E, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Estremera A, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Montoya J, Ordóñez C, Martínez C, Zamora J, Campillo C, Abraira V. Modic changes and associated features in Southern European chronic low back pain patients. Spine J 2011;11:402-411

    Battie MC, Videman T, Kaprio J, et al. The Twin Spine Study: contributions to a changing view of disc degeneration. Spine J 2009;9:47-59

    Brisby H, Wei AQ, Molloy T, Chung SA, Murrell GA, Diwan AD. The Effect of Running Exercise on Intervertebral Disc Extracellular Matrix Production in a Rat Model. Spine 2010;35:1429–1436

    Brox JI, Nygaard ØP, Holm I, Keller A, Ingebrigtsen T, Reikerås O. Four-year follow-up of surgical versus non-surgical therapy for chronic low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69(9):1643-8

    Boselie TF, Willems PC, van Mameren H, de Bie RA, Benzel EC, van Santbrink H. Arthroplasty versus fusion in single-level cervical degenerative disc disease: a Cochrane review. Spine 2013;38(17):E1096-107

    Carragee EJCheng I. Minimum acceptable outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion. Spine J. 2010;10(4):313-20.

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Chou R, Shekelle P.Will this patient develop persistent disabling low back pain? JAMA. 2010;303(13):1295-302.

    Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, Shekelle P, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-189.

    Chou D, Samartzis D, Bellabarba C, Patel A, Luk KD, Kisser JM, Skelly AC. Degenerative magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Spine 2011;36(21 Suppl):S43-53.

    Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI, Kreuter W, Goodman DG, Jarvik J. Trends, major medical complications and charges associated with surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis in older adults. JAMA 2010;303(13):1259-1265

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Nordwall A; Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. Eur Spine J. 2003;12(2):178-189.

    Gibson JN, Waddell G. Surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylosis; Updated Cochrane review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD001352. Review.

    Gross AR, Goldsmith C, Hoving JL, Haines T, Peloso P, Aker P, Santaguida P, Myers C; Cervical Overview Group. Conservative management of mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2007 May;34(5):1083-102

    Grupo de Variaciones de la Práctica Médica de la Red temática de Investigación en Resultados y Servicios de Salud (Grupo VPM-IRYS). Variaciones en cirugía ortopédica y traumatología en el Sistema Nacional de Salud. Atlas de Variaciones en la Práctica Médica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud 2005;1(1):17-37. Publicado por la Fundación IISS, Valencia.

    Harreby M, Neergaard K, Hesselsoe G, Kjer J. Are radiologic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescents risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine 1995;20: 2298-2302.

    Hayden JAvan Tulder MWTomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(9):776-85.

    Jacobs WC, van Tulder M, Arts M, Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Ostelo R, Verhagen A, Koes B, Peul WC. Surgery versus conservative management of sciatica due to a lumbar herniated disc: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(4):513-22.

    Jacobs W, Willems PC, van Limbeek J, Bartels R, Pavlov P, Anderson PG, Oner C. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD004958. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004958.pub2. Review

    Jacobs WCH, van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC , Tuschel A, de Kleuver  M, Peul WC, Verbout AJ, Oner FC Total Disc Replacement for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Cochrane Review. Spine 2013; 38 : 24 – 36

    Jacobs WCH, Rubinstein SM, Willems PC, Moojen WA, Pellisé F, Oner CG, Peul WC, van Tulder MW. The evidence on surgical interventions for low back disorders, an overview of systematic reviews. Eur Spine J 2013; DOI 10.1007/s00586-013-2823-4

    Jim JJ, Noponen-Hietala N, Cheung KM, et al. The TRP2 allele of COL9A2 is an age-dependent risk factor for the development and severity of intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine  2005;30:2735-42.

    Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Jensen TS, Estremera A, Amengual G, Muriel A, Galarraga I, Martinez C, Arana E, Sarasibar H, Salgado RM, Abraira V, López O, Campillo C, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J. Agreement in the interpretation of magnetic resonance images of the lumbar spine. Acta Radiol 2009;50(5):497-506

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  Spine J 2012;12:1008-1020

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Martin BIDeyo RAMirza SKTurner JAComstock BAHollingworth WSullivan SD. Expenditures and health status among adults with back and neck problems. JAMA. 2008 ;299(6):656-64.

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    Mirza SK, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, et al. Development of an index to characterize the “invasiveness” of spine surgery: validation by comparison to blood loss and operative time. Spine 2008; 33(24):2651-2661.

    Modic MT, Ross JS. Lumbar degenerative disk disease. Radiology 2007;245(1):43-61

    Pasku DSoufla GKatonis PTsarouhas AVakis ASpandidos DA. Akt/PKB isoforms expression in the human lumbar herniated disc: correlation with clinical and MRI findings. Eur Spine J 2011;20(10):1676-83.

    Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, Trinh K, Goldsmith Ch, Burnie S; Cervical Overview Group.Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD000319

    Philips FM, Slosar PJ, Youssef JA, Andersson G, Papatheofanis F. Lumbar Spine Fusion for Chronic Low Back Pain Due to Degenerative Disc Disease. A Systematic Review. Spine 2013 ;38:E409–E422

    Resnick D, Niwayama G. Degenerative disease of the spine. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders,1995; 1372–1462.

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

    Schellingerhout JM, Heymans MW, Verhagen AP, Lewis M, de Vet HCW, Koes BW Prognosis of Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain. Development and External Validation of a Prediction Rule for Persistence of Complaints. Spine 2010;35:E827–E835

    Schoene M. Spinal Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease: An Operation in Search of an Indication. The Back Letter 2013;28(4):37,44-47

    Spine Surgery Societies, Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery “notification” : www.spine.org/Documents/BCBSNC_Lumbar_Fusion_Response121510.pdf Published December 15, 2010. Updated December 15, 2010. Accessed June 30, 2011.

    Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective randomized clinical study. Spine 1997;22(24):2813-2822.

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Kuijpers T, Verhagen AP, Ostelo R, Koes BW, van Tulder MW.A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(1):19-39

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Ostelo R, van Tulder MW, Peul W, Koes BW, Verhagen AP. No additional value of fusion techniques on anterior discectomy for neck pain: a systematic review. Pain 2012;153(11):2167-73.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B, Seitsalo S, Malmivaara A. Outcome of invasive treatment modalities on back pain and sciatica: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 1:S82-92

    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, Koes B, Laerum E, Malmivaara A; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 2:S169-91.

    Videman TGibbons LEKaprio JBattié MC Challenging the cumulative injury model: positive effects of greater body mass on disc degeneration. Spine J 2010;10(1):26-31.

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    Willems Pde Bie ROner CCastelein Rde Kleuver M. Clinical decision making in spinal fusion for chronic low back pain: Results of a nationwide survey among spine surgeons, BMJ Open, 2011;1:e000391. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000391

    Willems PC, Staal JB, Walenkamp GH, de Bie RA. Spinal fusion for chronic low back pain: systematic review on the accuracy of tests for patient selection. Spine J 2013;13(2):99-109.

    Wilson-MacDonald JFairbank JFrost HYu LMBarker KCollins RCampbell H.The MRC spine stabilization trial: surgical methods, outcomes, costs, and complications of surgical stabilization. Spine 2008;33(21):2334-40.
Signos Modic

    Arana E, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Estremera A, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Montoya J, Ordóñez C, Martínez C, Zamora J, Campillo C, Abraira V. Modic changes and associated features in Southern European chronic low back pain patients. Spine J 2011;11:402-411

    Hutton MJ,  Bayer JH, Powell JM, Sharp DJ. Modic vertebral body changes. The natural history as assessed by consecutive magnetic resonance imaging.Spine 2011;36:2304–2307

    Jensen TS, Karppinen J, Sorensen JS, et al. Vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic changes): a systematic literature review of prevalence and association with non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2008;17:1407-22.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V; for the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects: A case control study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1519-1524

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Cabrera A, Casillas C, Piñero P, Vega M, Estremera A, Amengual G, Sarasíbar H, Ferrer P, Manjarrés A, Zamarro J, Bravo-Rodríguez F, Paniagua JC, Mota J, Sánchez-Sagrado T, Abraira V. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain. Eur J Rad 2013;82:1008-1014

    Keller ABoyle ESkog TACassidy JDBautz-Holter E Are Modic changes prognostic for recovery in a cohort of patients with non-specific low back pain? Eur Spine J. 2012;21(3):418-24.

    Spine Surgery Societies, Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery “notification” : www.spine.org/Documents/BCBSNC_Lumbar_Fusion_Response121510.pdf Published December 15, 2010. Updated December 15, 2010. Accessed June 30, 2011.

    Wang Y, Videman T, Battié MC. ISSLS Prize Winner: Lumbar vertebral endplate lesions associations with disc degeneration and back pain history. Spine 2012;37:1490 – 1496.
Inestabilidad vertebral
Artrosis facetaria

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Chou RFu RCarrino JADeyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9662):463-72.

    Chou RBaisden JCarragee EJResnick DKShaffer WOLoeser JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine  2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Gross AR, Goldsmith C, Hoving JL, Haines T, Peloso P, Aker P, Santaguida P, Myers C; Cervical Overview Group. Conservative management of mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2007 May;34(5):1083-102

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    Kalichman L, Li L, Kim HD, et al. Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Low Back Pain in the Community-Based Population. Spine 2008;33:2560–2565.

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  Spine J 2012;12:1008-1020

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll, J, Peña A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The prognostic value of catastrophizing for predicting the clinical evolution of low back pain patients. A study in routine clinical practice within the Spanish National Health Service [NCT00502333]. Spine J 2012;12:545-555

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    Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, Trinh K, Goldsmith Ch, Burnie S; Cervical Overview Group.Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD000319

    Roland Mvan Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet. 1998;352(9123):229-30.

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.

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    Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2 edition ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2004.

    Wardlaw D, Rithchie IK, Sabboubeh AF, Vavdha M, Eastmond CJ. Prospective randomized trial of chemonucleolysis compared with surgery for soft discherniation with 1-year, intermediate, and long-term outcome: part I: the clinical outcome. Spine  2013;38(17):E1051-7

    Wardlaw D, Rithchie IK, Sabboubeh AF, Vavdha M, Downing M, Eastmond CJ. Prospective Randomized Trial of Chemonucleolysis Compared With Surgery for Soft DiscHerniation With 1-Year, Intermediate, and Long-Term Outcome: Part II: The Radiological Outcome. Spine  2013;38(17):E1058-64.

    Weber H. The natural history of disc herniation and the influence of intervention. Spine 1994;19:2234–8.

    Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson ANA, Hanscom B, Skineer JS, Abdu WA, Hilibrand AS, Boden SD, Deyo RA. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): A Randomized Trial JAMA. 2006;296:2441-2450

    Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Tosteson ANA, Blood EA,Abdu WA, Herkowitz H, Hilibrand A, Albert T, Fischgrund J. Surgical Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Four-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) Spine 2008;33:2789–2800

    Weishaupt D, Zanetti M, Hodler J, Boos N. MR imaging of the lumbar spine: prevalence of intervertebral disk extrusion and sequestration, nerve root compression, end plate abnormalities, and osteoarthritis of the facet joints in asymptomatic volunteers. Radiology 1998;209(3):661-6.

    Wood KB, Garvey TA, Gundry C, Heithoff KB. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine. Evaluation of asymptomatic individuals. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995;77(11):1631-8.

    Yamamoto J, Maeno K, Takada T, Kakutani K, Yurube T, Zhang Z, Hirata H, Kurakawa T, Sakai D, Mochida J, Doita M, Kurosaka M, Nishida K. Fas ligand plays an important role for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells. J Orthop Res. 2013;31(4):608-15.

    Zhang ZJ, Cao DL, Zhang X, Ji RR, Gao YJ. Chemokine contribution to neuropathic pain: respective induction of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in spinal cord astrocytes and neurons. Pain. 2013 Jul 4. doi:pii: S0304-3959(13)00368-0. 10.1016/j.pain.2013.07.002. [Epub ahead of print]

    Zhang YGZhang FSun ZGuo WLiu JLiu MGuo X. A controlled case study of the relationship between environmental risk factors and apoptotic gene polymorphism and lumbar disc herniation. Am J Pathol. 2013;182(1):56-63.
Fibrosis quirúrgica y Síndrome de cirugía vertebral fallida
Esguince o luxación del coxis (o "coxigodinia")
Luxación atlanto-axoidea
Esguinces y luxaciones

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S192-300

    Chou R, Huffman LH. Evaluation & Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review for the American Pain Society. Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center. Oregon, 2007

    Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G , Cotterell M, Hill D, Browne N, Buchanan E, Coffey P, Dixon P, Drummond C, Flanagan M, Greenough,C, Griffiths M, Halliday-Bell J, Hettinga D, Vogel S, Walsh D. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. Full Guideline. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2009; Disponible en www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG88fullguideline.pdf, visitada el 9 de agosto de 2013.
Esguince cervical ( "latigazo cervical")

Diagnóstico

Pruebas diagnósticas de imagen.

    Arana E, Royuela A, Kovacs FM, Estremera A, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Martínez C, Muriel A, Abraria V, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J, Campillo C. Agreement in the interpretation of 1.5T Magnetic Resonance images of the lumbar spine using the Nordic Modic Consensus Group Classification form. Radiology 2010; 254:809–817

    Arana E, Royuela A, Kovacs FM, Estremera A, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Martínez C, Muriel A, Abraria V, Zamora J, Campillo C. The influence of nomenclature in the interpretation of lumbar disk contour on MRI: A comparison of the agreement using the Combined Task Force and the Nordic nomenclatures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 32:1143– 48 _ Jun-Jul 2011.

    Arana E, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Estremera A, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Montoya J, Ordóñez C, Martínez C, Zamora J, Campillo C, Abraira V. Modic changes and associated features in Southern European chronic low back pain patients. Spine J 2011;11:402-411

    Arana E, Kovacs FM. Enfermedades dolorosas del raquis: precaución y oportunidades con las técnicas de imagen. Radiologia 2012;54:287

    Arana E, Ruiz-España S, Kovacs FM, Moratal D. Computer-assisted diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spine MR imaging. Neuroradiology 2012;54:S75

    Aprill C, Bogduk N High-intensity zone: a diagnostic sign of painful lumbar disc on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 1992; 65(773): 361-9.

    el Barzouhi A, Vleggeert-Lankamp C, à Nijeholt GJ,Van der Kallen BF, van den Hout WB, Jacobs W,  Koes BW, Peul W, for the Leiden–The Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Follow-up Assessment of Sciatica. N Engl J Med 2013;368:999-1007.

    Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72(3): 403-8.

    Boos N, Lander PH Clinical efficacy of imaging modalities in the diagnosis of low-back pain disorders. Eur Spine J 1996;5(1): 2-22.

    Borkan J, Reis S, Werner S, Ribak J, Prath A. Guidelines for treating low back pain in primary care (Hebrew; available in English). The Israeli Low Back Pain Guideline Group. Harfuah 1996; 130: 145-151.

    Carragee EJ, Hannibal M. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 2004; 35(1): 7-16.

    Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 373: 463–72.

    Danish Institute for Health Technology Assessment: Low back pain. Frequency, management and prevention from an HTA perspective. Danish Health Technology Assessment 1999.

    Deyo RA, Diehl AK. Cancer as a cause of back pain: frequency, clinical presentation, and diagnostic strategies. J Gen Intern Med 1998;3(3): 230-8.

    Dolan AL, Ryan PJ, Arden NK, Stratton R, Wedley JR, Hamann W, Fogelman I, Gibson T. The value of SPECT scans in identifying back pain likely to benefit from facet joint injection. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35(12): 1269-73.

    Endean A, Palmer TK, Coggon D. Potential of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings to Refine Case Definition for Mechanical Low Back Pain in Epidemiological Studies. A Systematic Review. Spine 2011;36:160–169

    Flynn TW, Smith B, Chou R. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging in low back pain: a reminder that unnecessary imaging may do as much harm as good. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(11):838-46.

    Gilbert FJ, Grant AM, Gillan MG, Vale L, Scott NW, Campbell MK, Wardlaw D, Knight D, McIntosh E, Porter RW. Does early imaging influence management and improve outcome in patients with low back pain? A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Health Technol Assess, 2004;8(17): III, 1-131.

    Gilbert FJ, Grant AM, Gillan MG, Vale LD, Campbell MK, Scott NW, Knight DJ, Wardlaw D. Low back pain: influence of early MR imaging or CT on treatment and outcome--multicenter randomized trial. Radiology 2004:231(2): 343-51.

    Gillan MG, Gilbert FJ, Andrew JE, Grant AM, Wardlaw D, Valentine NW, Gregori AC. Influence of imaging on clinical decision making in the treatment of lower back pain. Radiology 2001;220(2): 393-9.

    Graves JM, Fulton-Kehoe D, Jarvik JG, Franklin GM. Early Imaging for Acute Low Back Pain.One-Year Health and Disability Outcomes Among Washington State Workers.Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1617 – 1627

    Gron P, Olerud HM, Einarsson G, Leitz W, Servomaa A, Schoultz BW, Hjardemaal O. A Nordic survey of patient doses in diagnostic radiology. Eur Radiol 2000;10(12): 1988-92

    Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, Spindler MF, McAuley JH, Laslett M, Bogduk N.  Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain. Eur Spine J 2007;16:1539–1550

    Hollingworth W, Gray DT, Martin BI, Sullivan SD, Deyo RA, Jarvik JG. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing cancer-related low back pain. J Gen Intern Med 2003: 18(4): 303-12.

    Jarvik JJ, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, Haynor DR, Deyo RA. The Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine 2001; 26(10): 1158-66.

    Jarvik JG, Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain with emphasis on imaging. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 586-97.

    Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, Emerson SS, Gray DT, Overman S, Robinson D, Staiger T, Wessbecher F, Sullivan SD, Kreuter W, Deyo RA. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging vs radiographs for patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 289: 2810-8.

    Jarvik JG, Gold LS, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Rundell SD, Turner JA, Avins AL, Bauer Z, Bresnahan BW, Friedly JL, James K, Kessler L, Nedeljkovic SS, Nerenz DR, Shi X, Sullivan SD, Chan L, Schwalb JM, Deyo RA. Association of early imaging for back pain with clinical outcomes in older adults.JAMA. 2015 Mar 17;313(11):1143-53 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25781443

    Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, Modic MT, Malkasian D, Ross JS. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med 1994; 331(2): 69-73.

    Jensen TS, Karppinen J, Sorensen JS, et al. Vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic change): a systematic literature review of prevalence and association with non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2008;17:1407-22.

    Joines JD, McNutt RA, Carey TS, Deyo RA, Rouhani R. Finding cancer in primary care outpatients with low back pain: a comparison of diagnostic strategies. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16(1): 14-23.

    Kanmaz B, Collier BD, Liu Y, Uzum F, Uygur G, Akansel G, Gunes I, Krasnow AZ, Hellman RS, Isitman AT, Carrera G. SPET and three-phase planar bone scintigraphy in adult patients with chronic low back pain. Nucl Med Commun 1998; 19(1): 13-21.
    Kanno H, Endo T, Ozawa H, Koizumi Y, Morozumi N, Itoi E, Ishii Y. Axial Loading During Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis. Does It Reproduce the Positional Change of the Dural Sac Detected by Upright Myelography? .Spine 2012 ; 37 : E985 – E992.

    Keller A, Boyle E, Skog TA, Cassidy JD, Bautz-Holter E. Are Modic changes prognostic for recovery in a cohort of patients with non-specific low back pain? Eur Spine J. 2011 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

    Kendrick D, Fielding K, Bentley E, Kerslake R, Miller P, Pringle M. Radiography of the lumbar spine in primary care patients with low back pain: randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 2001; 322: 400-5.

    Kendrick D, Fielding K, Bentley E, Miller P, Kerslake R, Pringle M. The role of radiography in primary care patients with low back pain of at least 6 weeks duration: a randomised (unblinded) controlled trial. Health Technol Assess 2001;5(30): 1-69.

    Kent DL, Haynor DR, Larson EB, Deyo RA. Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis in adults: a metaanalysis of the accuracy of CT, MR, and myelography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992; 158(5): 1135-44.

    Kerry S, Hilton S, Patel S, Dundas D, Rink E, Lord J. Routine referral for radiography of patients presenting with low back pain: is patients' outcome influenced by GPs' referral for plain radiography? Health Technol Assess 2000; 4(20): i-iv, 1-119.

    Kerry S, Hilton S, Dundas D, Rink E, Oakeshott P. Radiography for low back pain: a randomised controlled trial and observational study in primary care. Br J Gen Pract 2002; 52(479): 469-74.

    Kleinstück F, Dvorak J, Mannion AF. Are “Structural Abnormalities” on Magnetic Resonance Imaging a Contraindication to the Successful Conservative Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain? Spine 2006;31:2250–2257
     
    Kovacs FM, Royuela A, Jensen TS, Estremera A, Amengual G, Muriel A, Galarraga I, Martinez C, Arana E, Sarasibar H, Salgado RM, Abraira V, López O, Campillo C, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J. Agreement in the interpretation of magnetic resonance images of the lumbar spine. Acta Radiol 2009;50(5):497-506.

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Martínez C, Abraira V. Vertebral endplate changes are not associated with chronic low back pain among Southern European subjects. A case control study [NCT00479063]. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2012;33:1519-1524.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Arana E, Royuela E, Álvarez-Galovich L, Bagó J, Peul WC, Schoene ML, Corbin TP. Concerns over the usefulness of Modic changes for recommending total disc arthroplasty. Spine 2012;11(37):1014–1015

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Arana V, Royuela A, Estremera A, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Amengual G, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Montoya J, Ordóñez C, Martínez C, Zamora J, Campillo C. Re: Kääpä E, Luoma K, Pitkäniemi J, et al. Correlation of size and type of modic types 1 and 2 lesions with clinical symptoms: a descriptive study in a subgroup of patients with chronic low back pain on the basis of a university hospital patient sample. Spine;37:134-9. Spine 2012;13:1184

    Kovacs FM, Martínez C, Arana E, Royuela A, Estremera A, Amengual G, Asenjo B, Sarasíbar H, Galarraga I, Alonso A, Casillas C, Muriel A, Abraria V. Uncertainties in the measurement of lumbar spinal stenosis on MRI. Are they clinically relevant? Radiology 2012;2:310-311

    Kovacs FM, Arana E, Royuela A, Cabrera A, Casillas C, Piñero P, Vega M, Estremera A, Amengual G, Sarasíbar H, Ferrer P, Manjarrés A, Zamarro J, Bravo-Rodríguez F, Paniagua JC, Mota J, Sánchez-Sagrado T, Abraira V. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain. Eur J Rad 82 (2013) 1008–1014

    Kosuda S, Kaji T, Yokoyama H, Yokokawa T, Katayama M, Iriye T, Uematsu M, Kusano S  Does bone SPECT actually have lower sensitivity for detecting vertebral metastasis than MRI? J Nucl Med 1996;37(6): 975-8.

    Kuittinen P, Sipola P, Saari T, Aalto TJ, Sinikallio S, Savolainen S, Kröger H, Turunen V, Leinonen V,Airaksinen O. Visually assessed severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis is paradoxicallyassociated with leg pain and objective walking ability. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Oct 16;15:348.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25319184

    Lidar Z, Behrbalk E, RegevGJ , Salame K, Keynan O, Schweiger CH, Appelbaum L, Levy Y, Keidar A. Intervertebral Disc Height Changes After Weight Reduction in Morbidly Obese Patients and Its Effect on Quality of Life and Radicular and Low Back Pain. Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1947 – 1952

    Littenberg B, Siegel A, Tosteson AN, Mead T Clinical efficacy of SPECT bone imaging for low back pain. J Nucl Med 1995; 36(9): 1707-13.

    Miller P, Kendrick D, Bentley E, Fielding K. Cost-effectiveness of lumbar spine radiography in primary care patients with low back pain. Spine 2002; 27(20): 2291-7.

    Modic MT, Feiglin DH, Piraino DW, Boumphrey F, Weinstein MA, Duchesneau PM, Rehm S Vertebral osteomyelitis: assessment using MR. Radiology 1995; 157(1): 157-66.

    Modic MT, NA  Obuchowski, JS Ross, Brant-Zawadzki MN , PN Grooff, DJ Mazanec, EC Benzel. Acute Low Back Pain and Radiculopathy: MR Imaging Findings and Their Prognostic. Role and Effect on Outcome1. Radiology 2005; 237:597–604

    Modic MT, Ross JS. Lumbar degenerative disk disease. Radiology 2007;1:43-61

    Nakashima HYukawa YSuda KYamagata MUeta TKato F. Abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images of the cervical spines in1211 asymptomatic subjects. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Mar 15;40(6):392-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584950

    Pitkanen MT, Manninen HI, Lindgren KA, Sihvonen TA, Airaksinen O, Soimakallio S. Segmental lumbar spine instability at flexion-extension radiography can be predicted by conventional radiography. Clin Radiol  2002; 57(7): 632-9.

    Rankine JJ, Gill KP, Hutchinson CE, Ross ER, Williamson JB. The clinical significance of the high-intensity zone on lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 1999; 24(18): 1913-9; discussion 20.

    Roland M, van Tulder M. Should radiologists change the way they report plain radiography of the spine? Lancet 1998;352:229-230.

    Saal JS. General principles of diagnostic testing as related to painful lumbar spine disorders: a critical appraisal of current diagnostic techniques. Spine 2002; 27(22): 2538-45; discussion 46.

    Savage RA, Whitehouse GH, Roberts N. The relationship between the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of the lumbar spine and low back pain, age and occupation in males. Eur Spine J 1997; 6(2): 106-14.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity? Spine 1994; 19(10): 1132-7.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N.The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain 1994;58(2): 195-200.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N. The prevalence and clinical features of internal disc disruption in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995; 20(17): 1878-83.

    Schwarzer AC, Wang SC, Bogduk N, McNaught PJ, Laurent R. Prevalence and clinical features of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain: a study in an Australian population with chronic low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis 1995;54(2): 100-6.

    Schwarzer AC, Wang SC, O'Driscoll D, Harrington T, Bogduk N, Laurent R. The ability of computed tomography to identify a painful zygapophysial joint in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995; 20(8): 907-12.

    Smith BM, Hurwitz EL, Solsberg D, Rubinstein D, Corenman DS, Dwyer AP, Kleiner J. Interobserver reliability of detecting lumbar intervertebral disc high-intensity zone on magnetic resonance imaging and association of high-intensity zone with pain and anular disruption. Spine 1998; 23(19): 2074-80.

    Stadnik TW, Lee RR, Coen HL, Neirynck EC, Buisseret TS, Osteaux MJ.  Annular tears and disk herniation: prevalence and contrast enhancement on MR images in the absence of low back pain or sciatica. Radiology 1998; 206(1): 49-55.

    Takatalo J, Karppinen J, Niinimäki J, Taimela S, Mutanen P, Blanco Sequeiros R, PhD , Näyhä S, Järvelin MR, Kyllönen E , Tervonen O. Association of Modic Changes, Schmorl’s Nodes, Spondylolytic Defects, High-Intensity Zone Lesions, Disc Herniations, and Radial Tears With Low Back Symptom Severity Among Young Finnish Adults. Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1231 – 1239.

    van den Bosch MA, Hollingworth W, Kinmonth AL, Dixon AK Evidence against the use of lumbar spine radiography for low back pain. Clin Radiol 2004;59(1): 69-76.

    van Tulder MW, Assendelft WJJ, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Spinal radiographic findings and nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of observational studies. Spine 1997; 22: 427-34.

    Waris E, Eskelin M, Hermunen H, et al. Disc Degeneration in Low Back Pain. A 17-Year Follow-up Study Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spine 2007;32:681–684

    Weber C1, Kvistad KA, Moholdt VA, Nygaard ØP, Solheim O.    Repeated 3.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Clinically Successful Lumbar Disc Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Feb;41(3):239-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26866738

    Weishaupt D, Zanetti M, Hodler J, Boos N. MR imaging of the lumbar spine: prevalence of intervertebral disk extrusion and sequestration, nerve root compression, end plate abnormalities, and osteoarthritis of the facet joints in asymptomatic volunteers. Radiology 1998; 209(3): 661-6.

    Yamato M, Nishimura G, Kuramochi E, Saiki N, Fujioka M. MR appearance at different ages of osteoporotic compression fractures of the vertebrae. Radiat Med 1998; 16(5): 329-34.

    Yoshida H, Fujiwara A, Tamai K, Kobayashi N, Saiki K, Saotome K. Diagnosis of symptomatic disc by magnetic resonance imaging: T2-weighted and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. J Spinal Disord Tech 2002;15(3): 193-8

Pruebas neurofisiológicas: electromiograma

    De Luca CJ (1993) Use of the surface EMG signal for performance evaluation of back muscles. Muscle Nerve, 16: 210-6.

    Elfving B, Dedering A, Nemeth G (2003) Lumbar muscle fatigue and recovery in patients with long-term low-back trouble--electromyography and health-related factors. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 18(7): 619-30.

    Fisher MA (2002) Electrophysiology of radiculopathies. Clin Neurophysiol, 113(3): 317-35.

    Floyd WF, Silver PH (1955) The function of the erectores spinae muscles in certain movements and postures in man. J Physiol, 129(1): 184-203.

    Geisser ME, Haig AJ, Wallbom AS, Wiggert EA (2004) Pain-related fear, lumbar flexion, and dynamic EMG among persons with chronic musculoskeletal low back pain. Clin J Pain, 20(2): 61-9.

    Haig AJ (2002) Paraspinal denervation and the spinal degenerative cascade. Spine J, 2(5): 372-80.

    Haig AJ, Tong HC, Yamakawa KSJ, Quint DJ, Hoff JT, Chiodo A, Miner JA, Choksi VR, Geisser ME. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Electrodiagnostic Testing for the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. SPINE 2005 Volume 30, Number 23, pp 2667–2676.

    Hodges PW (2003) Core stability exercise in chronic low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am, 34(2): 245-54.

    Hodges PW, Moseley G (2003) Pain and motor control of the lumbopelvic region: effect and possible mechanisms. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 13(4): 361-70.

    Mannion AF, Connolly B, Wood K, Dolan P (1997) The use of surface EMG power spectral analysis in the evaluation of back muscle function. J Rehab Res Devel, 34(4): 427-39.

    Mannion AF, Junge A, Taimela S, Muntener M, Lorenzo K, Dvorak J (2001a) Active therapy for chronic low back pain: part 3. Factors influencing self-rated disability and its change following therapy. Spine, 26(8): 920-9.

    Mannion AF, Taimela S, Muntener M, Dvorak J (2001b) Active therapy for chronic low back pain part 1. Effects on back muscle activation, fatigability, and strength. Spine, 26(8): 897-908.

    Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Watson MJ, Richardson B (2000) Application of surface electromyography in the assessment of low back pain: a literature review. Physical Therapy Reviews, 5(2): 93-105.

    Pullman SL, Goodin DS, Marquinez AI, Tabbal S, Rubin M (2000) Clinical utility of surface EMG: report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 55(2): 171-7.

    Travlos A, Trueman S, Eisen A (1995) Monopolar needle evaluation of paraspinal musculature in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions and the effects of aging. Muscle Nerve, 18(2): 196-200.

    van Dieen JH, Selen LP, Cholewicki J (2003) Trunk muscle activation in low-back pain patients, an analysis of the literature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 13(4): 333-51.

Otras pruebas diagnósticas
Pruebas de provocación o alivio (discografía e infiltraciones facetarias con anestésicos)

    Carragee EJ, Hannibal M. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 2004; 35(1): 7-16.

    Dreyfuss PH, Dreyer SJ, Herring SA. Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint injections. Spine 1995, 20(18): 2040-7.

    Manchikanti L (1999) Facet Joint Pain and the Role of Neural Blockade in Its Management. Curr Rev Pain 1999, 3(5): 348-58

    Revel M, Poiraudeau S, Auleley GR, Payan C, Denke A, Nguyen M, Chevrot A, Fermanian J (1998) Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia. Proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints. Spine 1998, 23(18): 1972-6; discussion 7.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity? Spine 1994; 19(10): 1132-7.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N.The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain 1994;58(2): 195-200.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N.The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain 1994;58(2): 195-200.

    Schwarzer AC, Wang SC, Bogduk N, McNaught PJ, Laurent R. Prevalence and clinical features of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain: a study in an Australian population with chronic low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis 1995;54(2): 100-6.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N. The prevalence and clinical features of internal disc disruption in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995; 20(17): 1878-83.

    Yoshida H, Fujiwara A, Tamai K, Kobayashi N, Saiki K, Saotome K. Diagnosis of symptomatic disc by magnetic resonance imaging: T2-weighted and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. J Spinal Disord Tech 2002;15(3): 193-8

Pruebas quiroprácticas de movilidad y palpación vertebral

    Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000; 23(4): 258-75.

    Seffinger MA, Najm WI, Mishra SI, Adams A, Dickerson VM, Murphy LS, Reinsch S  Reliability of spinal palpation for diagnosis of back and neck pain: a systematic review of the literature. Spine 2004;29(19): E413-25.
Dolor e incapacidad

    Hiskisson EC. Measurement of pain. Lancet 1974;2:1127-1131"

    Kovacs FM, Llobera J, Gil del Real MT, Abraira V, Gestoso M, Fernández C and the Kovacs-Atención Primaria Group. Validation of the Spanish version of the Roland Morris Questionnaire. Spine 2002;27:538-542.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Zamora J, Gil del Real MT, Llobera J, Fernández C, and the Kovacs-Atención Primaria Group. Correlation between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with common low back pain. Spine: 2004;29(2):206-210.

    Kovacs FM, Muriel A, Abraira V, Medina JM, Castillo MD, Olabe J, and Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The influence of Fear Avoidance Beliefs on Disability and Quality of Life is sparse in Spanish low back patients. Spine 2005;30(22):E676-E682

    Kovacs FM. El uso del cuestionario Roland-Morris en los pacientes con lumbalgia asistidos en atención primaria. SEMERGEN 2005;31(7):331-5.

    Kovacs FM, Fernandez C, Cordero A, Muriel A, González-Luján L and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Non-specific low back pain in primary care in the Spanish National Health Service: a prospective study on clinical outcomes and determinants of management. BMC Health Serv Res 2006 May 17;6:57

    Kovacs FM, Muriel A, Abraira V, Medina JM, Castillo MD, Olabe J, and Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of the FAB Questionnaire. Spine 2006; 31 (1): 104-110.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Cano A, Royuela A, Gil del Real MT, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N, Muriel A, Zamora J., Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Fear avoidance beliefs do not influence disability and quality of life in Spanish elderly subjects with low back pain. Spine 2007;32:2133-2138

    Zamora J, Kovacs F, Abraira V, Fernández C, Lázaro P, The Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The social tariff of EQ-5D is not adequate to assess health-related Quality of Life in patients with low back pain. Qual Life Res 2007, Apr; 16(3): 523-531

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Alegre L, Cano A, Muriel A, Zamora J, Gil del Real MT, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N, Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Minimal clinically important change for pain intensity and disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Spine 2007; 32 (25): 2915-2920.

    Kovacs FM, Muriel A, Castillo Sánchez MD, Medina JM, Royuela A and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Fear avoidance beliefs influence duration of sick leave in Spanish low back pain patients. Spine 2007;32 (16):1761-1766.

    Kovacs FM, Noguera J, Abraira V, Royuela A, Cano A, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J, Gestoso M, Muriel A, Mufraggi N. The influence of psychological factors on low back pain-related disability in community-dwelling older persons. Pain Med 2008;9(7):871-880

    Kovacs FM, Bagó J, Royuela A, Seco J, Giménez S, Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of instruments to measure neck pain disability. Biomed Central Musculoskeletal 2008. 9:42 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-42 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/9/42
    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Alegre L, Tomás M, Mir MA, Cano A, Muriel A, Zamora J, Gil del Real MT, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N. Minimum detectable and minimal clinically important changes for pain in patients with nonspecific neck pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:43 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-43. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/9/43.

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Peña A, Muriel A and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The correlation between pain, catastrophizing and disability in subacute and chronic low back pain. A study in the routine clinical practice of the Spanish National Health Service. Spine 2011;36:339–345

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll, J, Peña A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. The prognostic value of catastrophizing for predicting the clinical evolution of low back pain patients. A study in routine clinical practice within the Spanish National Health Service [NCT00502333]. Spine J (in press)

    Moix J, Kovacs FM, Martín A, Plana MN, Royuela A, and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Catastrophizing, state-anxiety, anger and depressive symptoms do not correlate with disability when variations of trait-anxiety are taken into account. A study of chronic low back pain patients treated in Spanish pain units [NCT00360802]. Pain Medicine 2011; 12: 1008–1017

    Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP (2002) A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine, 27(5): E109-20.

    Roland M, Morris R. A study of the natural history of back pain: Part I. Spine 1983;8:141-144

Tratamiento

1. Información al paciente ( y "Programas educativos breves")

    ACC and the National Health Committee. New Zealand Acute Low Back Pain Guide. Wellington, New Zealand, 1997.

    Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G et al. Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical practice guideline no. 14. AHCPR publication no. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1994.

    Buhrman M, Faltenhag S, Strom L, Andersson G (2004) Controlled trial of Internet-based treatment with telephone support for chronic back pain. Pain, 111(3): 368-77.

    Burton AK, Waddell G, Tillotson KM, Summerton N. Information and advice to patients with back pain can have a positive effect. A randomized controlled trial of a novel educational booklet in primary care. Spine 1999; 24: 2484-91.

    Cano AGestoso MKovacs FHale CMufraggi NAbraira V.The perceptions of people with low back pain treated in the Spanish National Health, and their experience while undergoing a new evidence based treatment. A focus group study . Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36(20):1713-22.
    http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/09638288.2013.869625
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24364535

    Engers A, Jellema P, Wensing M, van der Windt DAWM, Grol R, van Tulder MW. Individual patient education for low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2008, Issue 1.

    Faas A, Chavannes AW, Koes BW, Van den Hoogen JMM, Mens JMA, Smeele IJM, Romeijnders ACM, Van der Laan JR. Clinical practice guidelines for low back pain. (Dutch, available in English). Huisarts Wet 1996;39:18-31.

    Frost H, Lamb SE, Doll HA, Carver PT, Stewart-Brown S (2004) Randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy compared with advice for low back pain. BMJ, 329(7468): 708.

    Hagen EM, Eriksen HR, Ursin H (2000) Does early intervention with a light mobilization program reduce long-term sick leave for low back pain? Spine, 25(15): 1973-6.

    Haines T, Gross A, Burnie SJ, Goldsmith CH, Perry L. Patient education for neck pain with or without radiculopathy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1.

    Indahl A, Haldorsen EH, Holm S, Reikeras O, Ursin H (1998) Five-year follow-up study of a controlled clinical trial using light mobilization and an informative approach to low back pain. Spine, 23(23): 2625-30

    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Pohjolainen T, Hurri H, Mutanen P, Rissanen P, Pahkajarvi H, Levon H, Karpoff H, Roine R (2003) Mini-intervention for subacute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 28(6): 533-40; discussion 40-1.

    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Mutanen P, Roine R, Hurri H, Pohjolainen T (2004) Mini-intervention for subacute low back pain: two-year follow-up and modifiers of effectiveness. Spine, 29(10): 1069-76.

    Keel P, Perini Ch, Schutz-Petitjean D, et al Chronicisation des douleurs du dos: problematique, issues. Rapport final du Programme National de Recherche No 26B. Bale: Editions EULAR 1996.

    Keel P, Weber M, Roux E, et al. Kreuzschmerzen: Hintergründe, prävention, behandlung. Basisdokumentation. Verbindung der Schweizer Ärzte (FMH), Bern, 1998.

    Lorig KR, Laurent DD, Deyo RA, Marnell ME, Minor MA, Ritter PL (2002) Can a Back Pain E-mail Discussion Group improve health status and lower health care costs?: A randomized study. Arch Intern Med, 162(7): 792-6.

    Malmivaara A, Kotilainen E, Laasonen E, Poussa M, Rasmussen M, Clinical Practice Guidelines: diseases of the low back. (Finnish, available in English) The Finnish Medical Association Duodecim 1999.

    Moore JE, Von Korff M, Cherkin D, Saunders K, Lorig K (2000) A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral program for enhancing back pain self care in a primary care setting. Pain, 88(2): 145-53.

    Royal College of General Practitioners. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain. London, Royal College of General Practitioners, 1996 and 1999.

    Storheim K, Brox JI, Holm I, Koller AK, Bo K (2003) Intensive group training versus cognitive intervention in sub-acute low back pain: short-term results of a single-blind randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil Med, 35(3): 132-40.

    Turner JA (1996) Educational and behavioral interventions for back pain in primary care. Spine, 21(24): 2851-7; discussion 8-9.

    von Korff M, Moore JE, Lorig K, Cherkin DC, Saunders K, Gonzalez VM, Laurent D, Rutter C, Comite F (1998) A randomized trial of a lay person-led self-management group intervention for back pain patients in primary care. Spine, 23(23): 2608-15
2. Higiene postural , Escuelas de la Espalda y RPG

    Albadalejo C, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, del Pino R, Zamora J et al. The efficacy of a short education program and a short physiotherapy program for treating low back pain in primary care. A cluster randomized trial. Spine 2010;35: 483–496.

    Cohen JE, Goel V, Frank JW, Bombardier C, Peloso P, Guillemin F (1994) Group education interventions for people with low back pain. An overview of the literature. Spine, 19(11): 1214-22.

    Dalichau S, Perrey RM, Solbach T, Elliehausen H-J (1998) Erfahrungen bei der Durchfuhrung eines berufsbezogenen Rückenschulmodells in Baugewerbe. Arbeitsmedizin, 48: 72-80.

    Dalichau S, Scheele K, Perrey RM, Solbach T, Elliehausen H-J, Huebner J (1999) Ultraschall gestützte Haltungs- und Bewegungsanalyse der Lendenwirbelsäule zum Nachweis der Wirksamkeit einer Rückenschule. Arbeitsmedizin, 49: 148-56.

    Forssell MZ (1980) The Swedish Back School. Physiotherapy, 66(4): 112-4.

    Glomsrod B, Lonn JH, Soukup MG, Bo K, Larsen S (2001) "Active back school", prophylactic management for low back pain: three-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled trial. J Rehabil Med, 33(1): 26-30.

    Harkapaa K, Jarvikoski A, Mellin G, Hurri H (1989) A controlled study on the outcome of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain. Part I. Pain, disability, compliance, and reported treatment benefits three months after treatment. Scand J Rehabil Med, 21(2): 81-9.

    Harkapaa K, Mellin G, Jarvikoski A, Hurri H (1990) A controlled study on the outcome of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain. Part III. Long-term follow-up of pain, disability, and compliance. Scand J Rehabil Med, 22(4): 181-8.

    Heymans MW, Van Tulder MW, Esmail R, Bombardier C, Koes BW (2004) Back schools for non-specific low back pain. In The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.

    Hurri H (1989a) The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain. Part I. Benefits. Scand J Rehabil Med, 21(1): 33-40.

    Hurri H (1989b) The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain. Part II. Factors predicting the outcome. Scand J Rehabil Med, 21(1): 41-4.

    Julkunen J, Hurri H, Kankainen J (1988) Psychological factors in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Follow-up study of a back school intervention. Psychother Psychosom, 50(4): 173-81.

    Keijsers JF, Groenman NH, Gerards FM, van Oudheusden E, Steenbakkers M (1989) A back school in The Netherlands: evaluating the results. Patient Educ Couns, 14(1): 31-44.

    Keijsers JFME, Steenbakkers WHL, Meertens RM, Bouter LM, Kok GJ (1990) The efficacy of the back school: a randomized trial. Arthritis Care and Research, 3: 204-9.

    Klaber Moffett JA, Chase SM, Portek I, Ennis JR (1986) A controlled, prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a back school in the relief of chronic low back pain. Spine, 11(2): 120-2.

    Koes BW, van Tulder MW, van der Windt WM, Bouter LM (1994) The efficacy of back schools: a review of randomized clinical trials. J Clin Epidemiol, 47(8): 851-62.

    Lankhorst GJ, Van de Stadt RJ, Vogelaar TW, Van der Korst JK, Prevo AJ (1983) The effect of the Swedish Back School in chronic idiopathic low back pain. A prospective controlled study. Scand J Rehabil Med, 15(3): 141-5.

    Linton SJ, Bradley LA, Jensen I, Spangfort E, Sundell L (1989) The secondary prevention of low back pain: a controlled study with follow-up. Pain, 36(2): 197-207.

    Lonn JH, Glomsrod B, Soukup MG, Bo K, Larsen S (1999) Active back school: prophylactic management for low back pain. A randomized, controlled, 1-year follow-up study. Spine, 24(9): 865-71.

    Maier-Riehle B, Harter M (2001) The effects of back schools--a meta-analysis. Int J Rehabil Res, 24(3): 199-206.

     Méndez FJ. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain. Spine 2001

    Mellin G, Hurri H, Harkapaa K, Jarvikoski A (1989) A controlled study on the outcome of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain. Part II. Effects on physical measurements three months after treatment. Scand J Rehabil Med, 21(2): 91-5.

    Mellin G, Harkapaa K, Hurri H, Jarvikoski A (1990) A controlled study on the outcome of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain. Part IV. Long-term effects on physical measurements. Scand J Rehabil Med, 22(4): 189-94.

    Penttinen J, Nevala-Puranen N, Airaksinen O, Jaaskelainen M, Sintonen H, Takala J (2002) Randomized controlled trial of back school with and without peer support. J Occup Rehabil, 12(1): 21-9.

    Peña A, Gestoso M, Kovacs FM, Mufraggi N. Escuela de la Espalda: Prevención y rehabilitación de las patologías mecánicas del raquis. Rheuma 1997;5:16-22

    Postacchini F, Facchini M, Palieri P (1988) Efficacy of various forms of conservative treatment in low back pain: a comparative study. Neurol Orthop, 6: 113-6.

    van Tulder MW, Esmail R, Bombardier C, Koes BW (2004) Back schools for non-specific low back pain. In The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK

    Vanti C, Generali A, Ferrari s; Nava T, Tosarelli D, Pillastrinni P. General postural rehabilitation in musculoskeletal diseases: scientific evidence and clinical indications. ( Article in Italian) Reumatismo. 2007 Jul-Sep;59(3):192-201.
3. Ejercicio

    Abenhaim L, Rossignol M, Valat JP, Nordin M, Avouac B, Blotman F, Charlot J, Dreiser RL, Legrand E, Rozenberg S, Vautravers P (2000) The role of activity in the therapeutic management of back pain. Report of the International Paris Task Force on Back Pain. Spine, 25(4 Suppl): 1S-33S.

    Aitken D, Buchbinder R, Jones G, Winzenberg T. Interventions to improve adherence to exercise for chronicmusculoskeletal pain in adults. Aust Fam Physician. 2015;44(1):39-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25688958

    Aure OF, Nilsen JH, Vasseljen O (2003) Manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Spine, 28(6): 525-31; discussion 31-2.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Ostenfeld S, Bush E, Andersen (1995) Active treatment programs for patients with chronic low back pain: a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study. Eur Spine J, 4(3): 148-52.

    Bendix AE, Bendix T, Haestrup C, Busch E (1998) A prospective, randomized 5-year follow-up study of functional restoration in chronic low back pain patients. Eur Spine J, 7(2): 111-9.

    Bendix T, Bendix A, Labriola M, Haestrup C, Ebbehoj N (2000) Functional restoration versus outpatient physical training in chronic low back pain: a randomized comparative study. Spine, 25(19): 2494-500.

    Bentsen H, Lindgarde F, Manthorpe R (1997) The effect of dynamic strength back exercise and/or a home training program in 57-year-old women with chronic low back pain. Results of a prospective randomized study with a 3-year follow-up period. Spine, 22(13): 1494-500.

    Bronfort G, Goldsmith CH, Nelson CF, Boline PD, Anderson AV (1996) Trunk exercise combined with spinal manipulative or NSAID therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 19(9): 570-82.

    Brox JI, Hagen KB, Juel NG, Storheim K (1999) [Is exercise therapy and manipulation effective in low back pain?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 119(14): 2042-50.

    Buswell J (1982) Low back pain: a comparison of two treatment programmes. NZ J Physiotherapy, 10: 13-7.

    Callaghan M (1994) Evaluation of a back rehabilitation group of chronic back pain in an outpatient setting. Physiotherapy, 10: 677-81.

    Choi BKL, Verbeek JH, Tam WWS, Jiang JY. Exercises for prevention of recurrences of low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1

    Colle F, Poiraudeau S, Revel M (2001) [Critical analysis of a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis on exercise therapy and chronic low back pain]. Ann Readapt Med Phys, 44(4): 221-33.

    Daniels K, Denner A (1999) [Analysis based medical training therapy for the spine (FPZ concept): quality assurance in the scope of evidence-based medicine]. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich, 93(5): IV-V.

    Descarreaux M, Normand MC, Laurencelle L, Dugas C (2002) Evaluation of a specific home exercise program for low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 25(8): 497-503.

    Deyo RA, Walsh NE, Martin DC, Schoenfeld LS, Ramamurthy S (1990) A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain. N Engl J Med, 322(23): 1627-34.

    Donelson R. Exercise therapy for low back pain [letter]. Spine 2001;26:1827-1828.

    Dufour N, Thamsborg G, Oefeldt A, Lundsgaard C,  Stender S. Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain A Randomized, Clinical Trial Comparing Group-Based Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and IntensiveIndividual Therapist-Assisted Back Muscle Strengthening Exercises. SPINE2010,  Volume 35, Number 5, pp 469–476

    Ebenbichler GR, Oddsson LI, Kollmitzer J, Erim Z (2001) Sensory-motor control of the lower back: implications for rehabilitation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(11): 1889-98.

    Elnaggar IM, Nordin M, Sheikhzadeh A, Parnianpour M, Kahanovitz N (1991) Effects of spinal flexion and extension exercises on low-back pain and spinal mobility in chronic mechanical low-back pain patients. Spine, 16(8): 967-72.

    Evans G, Richards S (1996) Low back pain: an evaluation of therapeutic interventions., University of Bristol Health Care Evaluation Unit: Bristol.

    Faas A (1996) Exercises: which ones are worth trying, for which patients, and when? Spine, 21(24): 2874-8; discussion 8-9.

    Franke A, Gebauer S, Franke K, Brockow T (2000) [Acupuncture massage vs Swedish massage and individual exercise vs group exercise in low back pain sufferers--a randomized controlled clinical trial in a 2 x 2 factorial design]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 7(6): 286-93.

    Friedrich M, Gittler G, Halberstadt Y, Cermak T, Heiller I (1998) Combined exercise and motivation program: effect on the compliance and level of disability of patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 79(5): 475-87.

    Frost H, Klaber Moffett JA, Moser JS, Fairbank JC (1995) Randomised controlled trial for evaluation of fitness programme for patients with chronic low back pain. BMJ, 310(6973): 151-4.

    Frost H, Lamb SE, Klaber Moffett JA, Fairbank JC, Moser JS (1998) A fitness programme for patients with chronic low back pain: 2-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Pain, 75(2-3): 273-9.

    Ghoname EA, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Henderson BN, Gajraj NM, Huber PJ, Gatchel RJ (1999) Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study. Jama, 281(9): 818-23

    Gur A, Karakoc M, Cevik R, Nas K, Sarac AJ (2003) Efficacy of low power laser therapy and exercise on pain and functions in chronic low back pain. Lasers Surg Med, 32(3): 233-8.

    Hagen EM, Eriksen HR, Ursin H (2000) Does early intervention with a light mobilization program reduce long-term sick leave for low back pain? Spine, 25(15): 1973-6.

    Hansen FR, Bendix T, Skov P, Jensen CV, Kristensen JH, Krohn L, Schioeler H (1993) Intensive, dynamic back-muscle exercises, conventional physiotherapy, or placebo-control treatment of low-back pain. A randomized, observer-blind trial. Spine, 18(1): 98-108.

    Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, Koes BW: Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005, Jul 20:(3):CD000335.

    Hayden JA, Tulder MW van, Malmivaara A, Koes BW. Tratamiento con ejercicios para el dolor lumbar inespecífico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Hemmila HM, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Levoska S, Puska P (1997) Does folk medicine work? A randomized clinical trial on patients with prolonged back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 78(6): 571-7.

    Hemmila HM, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Levoska S, Puska P (2002) Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy, and physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 25(2): 99-104.

    Hilde G, Bo K (1998) Effect of exercise in the treatment of chronic back pain: a systematic review, emphasising type and dose of exercise. Physical Therapy Reviews, 3: 107-17.

    Hildebrandt VH, Proper KI, van den Berg R, Douwes M, van den Heuvel SG, van Buuren S (2000) [Cesar therapy is temporarily more effective in patients with chronic low back pain than the standard treatment by family practitioner: randomized, controlled and blinded clinical trial with 1 year follow-up]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 144(47): 2258-64.

    Horneij E, Hemborg B, Jensen I, Ekdahl C (2001) No significant differences between intervention programmes on neck, shoulder and low back pain: a prospective randomized study among home-care personnel. J Rehabil Med, 33(4): 170-6.

    Hsieh CY, Adams AH, Tobis J, Hong CZ, Danielson C, Platt K, Hoehler F, Reinsch S, Rubel A (2002) Effectiveness of four conservative treatments for subacute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine, 27(11): 1142-8.

    Hsieh RL, Lee WC (2002) One-shot percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: comparison of therapeutic effects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 81(11): 838-43.

    Jarrett MS, Orlando JF, Grimmer-Somers K.  The effectiveness of land based exercise compared to decompressive surgery in the management of lumbar spinal-canal stenosis: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012, 13:30 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/30.

    Johannsen F, Remvig L, Kryger P, Beck P, Warming S, Lybeck K, Dreyer V, Larsen LH (1995) Exercises for chronic low back pain: a clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 22(2): 52-9.

    Jousset N, Fanello S, Bontoux L, Dubus V, Billabert C, Vielle B, Roquelaure Y, Penneau-Fontbonne D, Richard I (2004) Effects of functional restoration versus 3 hours per week physical therapy: a randomized controlled study. Spine, 29(5): 487-93; discussion 94.

    Kay TM, Gross A, Goldsmith CH, Rutherford S, Voth S, Hoving JL, Brønfort G, Santaguida PL. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;8:CD004250.

    Kankaanpaa M, Taimela S, Airaksinen O, Hanninen O (1999) The efficacy of active rehabilitation in chronic low back pain. Effect on pain intensity, self-experienced disability, and lumbar fatigability. Spine, 24(10): 1034-42.

    Kendall PH, Jenkins JM (1968) Exercises for backache: a double-blind controlled trial. Physiotherapy, 54: 154-7.

    Klaber Moffett J, Torgerson D, Bell-Syer S, Jackson D, Llewlyn-Phillips H, Farrin A, Barber J (1999) Randomised controlled trial of exercise for low back pain: clinical outcomes, costs, and preferences. BMJ, 319(7205): 279-83.

    klein RG, Eek BC (1990) Low-energy laser treatment and exercise for chronic low back pain: double-blind controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 71(1): 34-7.

    Koes BW, Bouter LM, Beckerman H, van der Heijden GJ, Knipschild PG (1991) Physiotherapy exercises and back pain: a blinded review. BMJ, 302(6792): 1572-6.

    Kool J, de Bie R, Oesch P, Knusel O, van den Brandt P, Bachmann S (2004) Exercise reduces sick leave in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain: a meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med, 36(2): 49-62.

    Kuukkanen T, Malkia E (2000) Effects of a three-month therapeutic exercise programme on flexibility in subjects with low back pain. Physiother Res Int, 5(1): 46-61.

    Liddle SD, Baxter GD, Gracey JH (2004) Exercise and chronic low back pain: what works? Pain, 107(1-2): 176-90.

    Lidstrom A, Zachrisson M (1970) Physical therapy on low back pain and sciatica. An attempt at evaluation. Scand J Rehabil Med, 2(1): 37-42.

    Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson LE, Fordyce WE, Nachemson AL (1992a) The effect of graded activity on patients with subacute low back pain: a randomized prospective clinical study with an operant-conditioning behavioral approach. Phys Ther, 72(4): 279-90; discussion 91-3.

    Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson LE, Nachemson A (1992b) Mobility, strength, and fitness after a graded activity program for patients with subacute low back pain. A randomized prospective clinical study with a behavioral therapy approach. Spine, 17(6): 641-52.

    Lindström I (1994) A successful intervention program for patients with subacute low back pain., Göteborg University. Göteborg

    Ljunggren AE, Weber H, Kogstad O, Thom E, Kirkesola G (1997) Effect of exercise on sick leave due to low back pain. A randomized, comparative, long-term study. Spine, 22(14): 1610-6; discussion 7.

    Maher C, Latimer J, Refshauge K (1999) Prescription of activity for low back pain: What works? Aust J Physiother, 45(2): 121-32.

    Manniche C, Hesselsoe G, Bentzen L, Christensen I, Lundberg E (1988) Clinical trial of intensive muscle training for chronic low back pain. Lancet, 2(8626-8627): 1473-6.

    Manniche C, Lundberg E, Christensen I, Bentzen L, Hesselsoe G (1991) Intensive dynamic back exercises for chronic low back pain: a clinical trial. Pain, 47(1): 53-63.

    Manniche C, Asmussen K, Lauritsen B, Vinterberg H, Karbo H, Abildstrup S, Fischer-Nielsen K, Krebs R, Ibsen K (1993) Intensive dynamic back exercises with or without hyperextension in chronic back pain after surgery for lumbar disc protrusion. A clinical trial. Spine, 18(5): 560-7.

    Mannion AF, Muntener M, Taimela S, Dvorak J (1999) A randomized clinical trial of three active therapies for chronic low back pain. Spine, 24(23): 2435-48.

    Mannion AF, Junge A, Taimela S, Muntener M, Lorenzo K, Dvorak J (2001a) Active therapy for chronic low back pain: part 3. Factors influencing self-rated disability and its change following therapy. Spine, 26(8): 920-9.

    Mannion AF, Muntener M, Taimela S, Dvorak J (2001b) Comparison of three active therapies for chronic low back pain: results of a randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford), 40(7): 772-8.

    Mannion AF, Taimela S, Muntener M, Dvorak J (2001c) Active therapy for chronic low back pain part 1. Effects on back muscle activation, fatigability, and strength. Spine, 26(8): 897-908.

    Mannion AF, Brox JI, Fairbank JC. Comparison of spinal fusion and nonoperative treatment in patients withchronic low back pain: long-term follow-up of three randomized controlled trials. Spine J. 2013 Nov;13(11):1438-48. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.06.101. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

    Martin PR, Rose MJ, Nichols PJ, Russell PL, Hughes IG (1986) Physiotherapy exercises for low back pain: process and clinical outcome. Int Rehabil Med, 8(1): 34-8.

    McKenzie R. Exercise therapy for low back pain [letter] Spine 2001;26:1829-1831.

    McIlveen B, Robertson VJ (1998) A randomised controlled study of the outcome of hydrotherapy for subjects with low back or back and leg pain. Physiotherapy, 84: 17-26.

    Miltner O, Wirtz DC, Siebert CH (2001) [Strengthening lumbar extensors--therapy of chronic back pain--an overview and meta-analysis]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb, 139(4): 287-93.

    Mior S (2001) Exercise in the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain, 17(4 Suppl): S77-85.

    Moseley L (2002) Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother, 48(4): 297-302.

    Muller K, Schwesig R, Leuchte S, Riede D (2001) [Coordinative treatment and quality of life - a randomised trial of nurses with back pain]. Gesundheitswesen, 63(10): 609-18.

    Niemisto L, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Rissanen P, Lindgren KA, Sarna S, Hurri H (2003) A randomized trial of combined manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation compared to physician consultation alone for chronic low back pain. Spine, 28(19): 2185-91.

    Niemisto L, Sarna S, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Lindgren KA, Hurri H (2004) Predictive factors for 1-year outcome of chronic low back pain following manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation or physician consultation alone. J Rehabil Med, 36(3): 104-9.

    Oosterhuis T, Costa LO, Maher CG, de Vet HC, van Tulder MW, Ostelo RW. Rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 14;3:CD003007. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003007.pub3.

    Overdevest GMVleggeert-Lankamp CLJacobs WCBrand RKoes BWPeul WCLeiden-The Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Spine J. 2014 Sep 1;14(9):1817-24

    O'Sullivan PB, Phyty GD, Twomey LT, Allison GT (1997) Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Spine, 22(24): 2959-67.

    Penttinen J, Nevala-Puranen N, Airaksinen O, Jaaskelainen M, Sintonen H, Takala J (2002) Randomized controlled trial of back school with and without peer support. J Occup Rehabil, 12(1): 21-9.

    Petersen T, Kryger P, Ekdahl C, Olsen S, Jacobsen S (2002) The effect of McKenzie therapy as compared with that of intensive strengthening training for the treatment of patients with subacute or chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Spine, 27(16): 1702-9.

    Rasmussen-Barr E, Nilsson-Wikmar L, Arvidsson I (2003) Stabilizing training compared with manual treatment in sub-acute and chronic low-back pain. Man Ther, 8(4): 233-41.

    Reilly K, Lovejoy B, Williams R, Roth H (1989) Differences between a supervised and independent strength and conditioning program with chronic low back syndromes. J Occup Med, 31(6): 547-50.

    Risch SV, Norvell NK, Pollock ML, Risch ED, Langer H, Fulton M, Graves JE, Leggett SH (1993) Lumbar strengthening in chronic low back pain patients. Physiologic and psychological benefits. Spine, 18(2): 232-8.

    Rittweger J, Just K, Kautzsch K, Reeg P, Felsenberg D (2002) Treatment of chronic lower back pain with lumbar extension and whole-body vibration exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 27(17): 1829-34.

    Serrano-Aguilar P, Kovacs FM, Cabrera-Hernández JM, Ramos-Goñi JM,     García-Pérez L.  Avoidable costs of physical treatments for chronic back, neck and shoulder pain within the Spanish National Health Service: a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011;12:287 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-287

    Snook SH, Webster BS, McGorry RW, Fogleman MT, McCann KB (1998) The reduction of chronic nonspecific low back pain through the control of early morning lumbar flexion. A randomized controlled trial. Spine, 23(23): 2601-7.

    Snook SH, Webster BS, McGorry RW (2002) The reduction of chronic, nonspecific low back pain through the control of early morning lumbar flexion: 3-year follow-up. J Occup Rehabil, 12(1): 13-9.

    Soukup MG, Glomsrod B, Lonn JH, Bo K, Larsen S (1999) The effect of a Mensendieck exercise program as secondary prophylaxis for recurrent low back pain. A randomized, controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Spine, 24(15): 1585-91; discussion 92.

    Soukup MG, Lonn J, Glomsrod B, Bo K, Larsen S (2001) Exercises and education as secondary prevention for recurrent low back pain. Physiother Res Int, 6(1): 27-39.

    Staal JB, Hlobil H, Twisk JW, Smid T, Koke AJ, van Mechelen W (2004) Graded activity for low back pain in occupational health care: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med, 140(2): 77-84.

    Storheim K, Brox JI, Holm I, Koller AK, Bo K (2003) Intensive group training versus cognitive intervention in sub-acute low back pain: short-term results of a single-blind randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil Med, 35(3): 132-40.

    Sweetman BJ, Heinrich I, Anderson JAD (1993) A randomized controlled trial of exercises, short wave diathermy, and traction for low back pain, with evidence of diagnosis-related response to treatment. Journal-of-Orthopaedic-Rheumatology, 6: 159-66.

    Torstensen TA, Ljunggren AE, Meen HD, Odland E, Mowinckel P, Geijerstam S (1998) Efficiency and costs of medical exercise therapy, conventional physiotherapy, and self-exercise in patients with chronic low back pain. A pragmatic, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Spine, 23(23): 2616-24.

    Tritilanunt T, Wajanavisit W (2001) The efficacy of an aerobic exercise and health education program for treatment of chronic low back pain. J Med Assoc Thai, 84 Suppl 2: S528-33.

    Turner JA, Clancy S, McQuade KJ, Cardenas DD (1990) Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: a component analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol, 58(5): 573-9.

    UK BEAM trial team. Brealey S, Coulton S, Farrin A, Morton V, Torgerson D, Burton AK, Garratt A, Harvey E, Letley L, Martin J, Vickers M, Whyte K, Manca A, Klaber Moffett J, Russell I, Underwood M, Williams M (2004) UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38282.669225.AE (published 29 November 2004)

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Kuijpers T, Verhagen AP, Ostelo R, Koes BW, van Tulder MW.A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2011 Jan;20(1):19-39.

    Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM (1997) Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine, 22(18): 2128-56.

    van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, Esmail R, Koes BW. Exercise therapy for non-specific low back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
    White AW (1966) Low back pain in men receiving workmen's compensation. Can Med Assoc J, 95(2): 50-6.

    van Tulder MW, Koes B (2003) Low back pain and sciatica: chronic. Clin Evid, (9).

    van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, Esmail R, al. e (2003)Exercise therapy for low back pain., The Cochrane Library: Oxford.

    Waller B, Lambeck J,  Daly D.  Therapeutic aquatic exercise in the treatment of low back pain: a systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009; 23: 3–14

    White AW (1969) Low back pain in men receiving workmen's compensation: a follow-up study. Can Med Assoc J, 101(2): 61-7

Método fisioterapéutico de "cadenas musculares" o Godelieve-Denys-Struyf (GDS).

    Díaz Arribas M, Ramos Sánchez M, Pardo Hervás P, López Chicharro J, Angulo Carreré T, Ortega Molina P, Astasio Arbiza P. Effectiveness of the physical therapy Godelieve Denys-Struyf method for nonspecific low back pain: primary care randomized control trial. Spine 2009; 34(15): 1529-1538.

4. Mantener el mayor grado posible de actividad física

    ACC and the National Health Committee. New Zealand Acute Low Back Pain Guide. Wellington, New Zealand, 1997.

    Bekkering GE, van Tulder MW, Hendriks HJM, Oostendorp RAB, Koes BW, Ostelo RWJG, Thomassen J. Dutch physiotherapy guideline for low back pain. (KNGF richtlijn lage rugpijn) Ned Tijdschr Fysiother 2001;111 (Suppl. 3): 1-24.

    Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G et al. Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical practice guideline no. 14. AHCPR publication no. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1994.

    Borkan J, Reis S, Werner S, Ribak J, Prath A. Guidelines for treating low back pain in primary care (Hebrew; available in English). The Israeli Low Back Pain Guideline Group. Harfuah 1996; 130: 145-151.

    Burton AK, Waddell G, Tillotson KM, Summerton N. 1999. Information and advice to patients with back pain can have a positive effect: a randomized controlled trial of a novel educational booklet in primary care. Spine 24: 2484-2491.

    Danish Institute for Health Technology Assessment: Low back pain. Frequency, management and prevention from an HTA perspective. Danish Health Technology Assessment 1999.

    Faas A, Chavannes AW, Koes BW, Van den Hoogen JMM, Mens JMA, Smeele IJM, Romeijnders ACM, Van der Laan JR. Clinical practice guidelines for low back pain. (Dutch, available in English). Huisarts Wet 1996;39:18-31.

    Hagen EM, Eriksen HR, Ursin H. Does early intervention with a light mobilization program reduce long-term sick leave for low back pain? Spine 2000; 25: 1973-6.

    Hilde G, Hagen KB, Jamtvedt G, Winnem M. Advice to stay active as a single treatment for low back pain and sciatica (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Keel P, Perini Ch, Schutz-Petitjean D, et al Chronicisation des douleurs du dos: problematique, issues. Rapport final du Programme National de Recherche No 26B. Bale: Editions EULAR 1996.

    Keel P, Weber M, Roux E, et al. Kreuzschmerzen: Hintergründe, prävention, behandlung. Basisdokumentation. Verbindung der Schweizer Ärzte (FMH), Bern, 1998.

    Malmivaara A, Kotilainen E, Laasonen E, Poussa M, Rasmussen M, Clinical Practice Guidelines: diseases of the low back. (Finnish, available in English) The Finnish Medical Association Duodecim 1999.

    Moix J, Kovacs FM,  Martín A , Plana M, Royuela A , and The Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Catastrophizing, State Anxiety, Anger, and Depressive Symptoms Do Not Correlate with Disability when Variations of Trait Anxiety Are Taken into Account. A Study of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Treated in Spanish PainUnits. Pain Medicine 2011; 12: 1008–1017

    Royal College of General Practitioners. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain. London, Royal College of General Practitioners, 1996 and 1999.

    Rozenberg S, Delval C, Rezvani Y, et al. Bed rest or normal activity for patients with acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine 2002; 27: 1487-93.

    Shu-Mei Chen, Mei-Fang Liu, Jill Cook , Shona Bass, Sing Kai Lo .Sedentary lifestyle as a risk factor for low back pain: a systematic review. Int Arch Occup Environ Health (2009) 82:797–806

    Vlaeyen JW, Linton SJ. Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of th art. Pain 2000;85(3)::317-32

    Waddell G, Feder G, Lewis M. Systematic reviews of bed rest and advice to stay active for acute low back pain. Br J Gen Pract 1997; 47: 647-52.

5. Evitar el reposo en cama

    ACC and the National Health Committee. New Zealand Acute Low Back Pain Guide. Wellington, New Zealand, 1997.

    Bekkering GE, van Tulder MW, Hendriks HJM, Oostendorp RAB, Koes BW, Ostelo RWJG, Thomassen J. Dutch physiotherapy guideline for low back pain. (KNGF richtlijn lage rugpijn) Ned Tijdschr Fysiother 2001;111 (Suppl. 3): 1-24.

    Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G et al. Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical practice guideline no. 14. AHCPR publication no. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1994.

    Borkan J, Reis S, Werner S, Ribak J, Prath A. Guidelines for treating low back pain in primary care (Hebrew; available in English). The Israeli Low Back Pain Guideline Group. Harfuah 1996; 130: 145-151.

    Dahm KT, Brurberg KG, Jamtvedt G, Hagen KB. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6.

    Danish Institute for Health Technology Assessment: Low back pain. Frequency, management and prevention from an HTA perspective. Danish Health Technology Assessment 1999.

    Faas A, Chavannes AW, Koes BW, Van den Hoogen JMM, Mens JMA, Smeele IJM, Romeijnders ACM, Van der Laan JR. Clinical practice guidelines for low back pain. (Dutch, available in English). Huisarts Wet 1996;39:18-31.

    Hagen EM, Eriksen HR, Ursin H. Does early intervention with a light mobilization program reduce long-term sick leave for low back pain? Spine 2000; 25: 1973-6.

    Hagen KB, Hilde G, Jamtvedt G, Winnem M. Bed rest for acute low back pain and scitatica (Cocrhane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2002. Oxford: Update Software.

    Hilde G, Hagen KB, Jamtvedt G, Winnem M. Advice to stay active as a single treatment for low back pain and sciatica (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Keel P, Perini Ch, Schutz-Petitjean D, et al Chronicisation des douleurs du dos: problematique, issues. Rapport final du Programme National de Recherche No 26B. Bale: Editions EULAR 1996.

    Keel P, Weber M, Roux E, et al. Kreuzschmerzen: Hintergründe, prävention, behandlung. Basisdokumentation. Verbindung der Schweizer Ärzte (FMH), Bern, 1998.

    Koes BW, van den Hoogen HMM. Efficacy of bed rest and orthoses of low back pain. A review of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 4: 86-93.

    Malmivaara A, Häkkinen U, Aro T, Heinrichs M, Koskenniemi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, Paloheimo R, Servo C, Vaaranen V, Hernberg S. The treatment of acute low back pain; bed rest, exercises or ordinary activity? N Engl J Med 1995;332:351-355.

    Malmivaara A, Kotilainen E, Laasonen E, Poussa M, Rasmussen M, Clinical Practice Guidelines: diseases of the low back. (Finnish, available in English) The Finnish Medical Association Duodecim 1999.

    Moyal College of General Practitioners. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain. London, Royal College of General Practitioners, 1996 and 1999.

    Rozenberg S, Delval C, Rezvani Y, et al. Bed rest or normal activity for patients with acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine 2002; 27: 1487-93.

    Waddell G, Feder G, Lewis M. Systematic reviews of bed rest and advice to stay active for acute low back pain. Br J Gen Pract 1997; 47: 647-52.

6. Fármacos
Fármacos de primera línea: Analgésicos, opiáceos menores, AINE y miorrelajantes.

    Amadio P, Cummings DM (1983) Evaluation of acetaminophen in the management of osteoarthirits of the knee. Curr Ther Res, 34(1): 59-66.

    Arbus L, Fajadet B, Aubert D, Morre M, Goldfinger E (1990) Activity of tetrazepam in low back pain. Clinical Trials Journal, 27(4): 258-67.

    Basmajian JV (1978) Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride effect on skeletal muscle spasm in the lumbar region and neck: two double-blind controlled clinical and laboratory studies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 59(2): 58-63.

    Berry H, Bloom B, Hamilton EB, Swinson DR (1982) Naproxen sodium, diflunisal, and placebo in the treatment of chronic back pain. Ann Rheum Dis, 41(2): 129-32.

    Birbara CA, Puopolo AD, Munoz DR, Sheldon EA, Mangione A, Bohidar NR, Geba GP (2003) Treatment of chronic low back pain with etoricoxib, a new cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitor: improvement in pain and disability--a randomized, placebo-controlled, 3-month trial. J Pain, 4(6): 307-15.

    Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, Shapiro D, Burgos-Vargas R, Davis B, Day R, Ferraz MB, Hawkey CJ, Hochberg MC, Kvien TK, Schnitzer TJ (2000) Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med, 343(21): 1520-8, 2 p following 8.

    Casale R (1988) Acute low back pain: Symptomatic treatment with a muscle relaxant drug. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 4: 81-8.

    Chrubasik S, Model A, Black A, Pollak S (2003) A randomized double-blind pilot study comparing Doloteffin and Vioxx in the treatment of low back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford), 42(1): 141-8.

    De Craen AJM, Di Giulio G, Lampe-Schoenmaeckers AJEM, Kessels AGH, Kleijnen J. Analgesic efficacy and safety of paracetamol-codeine combinations versus paracetamol alone: a systematic review. Br Med J 1996; 313: 321-325.

    Deshpande A, Furlan A, Mailis-Gagnon A, Atlas S, Turk D. Opiáceos para el dolor lumbar crónico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Gagnier JJ, vanTulderM, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2.

    Hickey RF (1982) Chronic low back pain: a comparison of diflunisal with paracetamol. N Z Med J, 95(707): 312-4.

    Ju WD, Krupa DA, Walters DJ, Newman TL, Borenstein DG, Katz N, Group VC (2001) A placebo-controlled trial of rofecoxib in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Pain Med, 2(3): 242-3.

    Katz N, Ju WD, Krupa DA, Sperling RS, Bozalis Rodgers D, Gertz BJ, Gimbel J, Coleman S, Fisher C, Nabizadeh S, Borenstein D (2003) Efficacy and safety of rofecoxib in patients with chronic low back pain: results from two 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind trials. Spine, 28(9): 851-8; discussion 9.

    Katz N, Rodgers DB, Krupa D, Reicin A (2004) Onset of pain relief with rofecoxib in chronic low back pain: results of two four-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Curr Med Res Opin, 20(5): 651-8.

    Koes BW, Scholten RJPM, Mens JMA, Bouter LM. Efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 214-23.

    Kuijpers T, van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Ostelo R, Verhagen A,  Koes BM,  van Tulder MW
    A systematic review on the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for chronic non-specific low-back pain Eur. J. Spine 2011 Enero, 20 (1) : 40-50.

    Pallay R, Seger W, Adler J, Ettlinger R, Quaidoo E, Lipetz R, O'Brien K, Mucciola L, Skalky C, Petruschke R, Bohidar N, Geba G (2004) Etoricoxib reduced pain and disability and improved quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain: a 3 month, randomized, controlled trial. Scand J Rheumatol, 33(4): 257-66.

    Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, Trinh K, Goldsmith CH, Burnie S, Cervical Overview Group. Tratamientos medicinales e inyectables para los trastornos mecánicos del cuello (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Pipino F, Menarini C, Lombardi G, Guerzoni P, Ferrini A, Pizzoli A, Grangie A, Beltrame A, Sorbilli G, Gottardo R, Cilento F (1991) A direct myotonolytic (Pridinol Mesilate) for the management of chronic low back pain: A multicentre, comparative clinical evaluation. European Journal of Clinical Research, 1: 55-70.

    Postacchini F, Facchini M, Palieri P (1988) Efficacy of various forms of conservative treatment in low back pain: a comparative study. Neurol Orthop, 6: 113-6.

    Pratzel HG, Alken RG, Ramm S (1996) Efficacy and tolerance of repeated oral doses of tolperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm: results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Pain, 67(2-3): 417-25.

    Roelofs PDDM, Deyo RA, Koes BW, Scholten RJPM, van Tulder MW. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue

    Staal J B,  Rob A. de Bie,  Henrica C. W. de Vet, Jan Hildebrandt, and Patty Nelemans. Injection Therapy for Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain. An Updated Cochrane Review. SPINE Volume 34, Number 1, pp 49–59. 2008.

    Salzmann E, Pforringer W, Paal G, Gierend M (1992) Treatment of chronic low-back syndrome with tetrazepam in a placebo controlled double-blind trial. J Drug Dev, 4: 219-28.

    Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, Simon LS, Pincus T, Whelton A, Makuch R, Eisen G, Agrawal NM, Stenson WF, Burr AM, Zhao WW, Kent JD, Lefkowith JB, Verburg KM, Geis GS (2000) Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: A randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. Jama, 284(10): 1247-55.

    Topol EJ (2004) Failing the Public Health -- Rofecoxib, Merck, and the FDA. N Engl J Med.

    Towheed TE, Judd MJ, Hochberg MC, Wells G (2003) Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD004257.

    van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM (1997) Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine, 22(18): 2128-56.

    van Tulder MW, Scholten RJPM, Koes BW, Deyo RA. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for non-specific low back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.

    van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, Solway S, Bouter LM. Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, Solway S, Bouter LM. Miorrelajantes para el tratamiento del dolor lumbar inespecífico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Vetter G, Bruggemann G, Lettko M, Schwieger G, Asbach H, Biermann W, Blasius K, Brinkmann R, Bruns H, Dorn E, et al. (1988) [Shortening diclofenac therapy by B vitamins. Results of a randomized double-blind study, diclofenac 50 mg versus diclofenac 50 mg plus B vitamins, in painful spinal diseases with degenerative changes]. Z Rheumatol, 47(5): 351-62.

    Videman T, Osterman K (1984) Double-blind parallel study of piroxicam versus indomethacin in the treatment of low back pain. Ann Clin Res, 16(3): 156-60

    Worz R, Bolten W, Heller B, Krainick JU, Pergande G (1996) [Flupirtine in comparison with chlormezanone in chronic musculoskeletal back pain. Results of a multicenter randomized double-blind study]. Fortschr Med, 114(35-36): 500-4

Otros fármacos:
Corticoides

    Goldberg H, Firtch W, Tyburski M, Pressman A, Ackerson L, Hamilton L, Smith W, Carver R, Maratukulam A, Won LA, Carragee E, Avins AL.  Oral steroids for acute radiculopathy due to a herniated lumbar disk: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 May 19;313(19):1915-23. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4468.
     
    Roncoroni C, Baillet A, Durand M, et al. Rheumatology (Oxford). Efficacy and tolerance of systemic steroids in sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2011 Sep;50(9):1603-11. Epub 2011 Apr 27. (Review) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525139?dopt=Abstract

Opiáceos

    Ashworth J, Green DJ, Dunn KM, Jordan KP. Opioid use among low back pain patients in primary care: Is opioid prescription associated with disability at 6-month follow-up? Pain. 2013 Jul;154(7):1038-44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23688575

    Chou RTurner JADevine EBHansen RNSullivan SDBlazina IDana TBougatsos CDeyo RA. The effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain: a systematic review for a national institutes of health pathways to prevention workshop.Ann Intern Med. 2015 Feb 17;162(4):276-86. doi: 10.7326/M14-2559. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25581257

    Deshpande A, Furlan A, Mailis-Gagnon A, Atlas S, Turk D. Opiáceos para el dolor lumbar crónico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Deyo RA, Smith DH, Johnson ES, Tillotson CJ, Donovan M, Yang X, Petrik  A, Morasco BJ, Dobscha SK. Prescription Opioids for Back Pain and Use of Medications for Erectile Dysfunction. SPINE 2013 Volume 38, Number 11, pp 909–915.

    Hale ME, Fleischmann R, Salzman R, Wild J, Iwan T, Swanton RE, Kaiko RF, Lacouture PG (1999) Efficacy and safety of controlled-release versus immediate-release oxycodone: randomized, double-blind evaluation in patients with chronic back pain. Clin J Pain, 15(3): 179-83.

    Jamison RN, Raymond SA, Slawsby EA, Nedeljkovic SS, Katz NP (1998) Opioid therapy for chronic noncancer back pain. A randomized prospective study. Spine, 23(23): 2591-600.

    Maier C, Hildebrandt J, Klinger R, Henrich-Eberl C, Lindena G (2002) Morphine responsiveness, efficacy and tolerability in patients with chronic non-tumor associated pain - results of a double-blind placebo-controlled trial (MONTAS). Pain, 97(3): 223-33.

    Mullican WS, Lacy JR (2001) Tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets and codeine/acetaminophen combination capsules for the management of chronic pain: a comparative trial. Clin Ther, 23(9): 1429-45.

    Nampiaparampil DE, Nampiaparampil GM, Nampiaparampil RG. Oral opioid analgesics vs. spinal steroid injections in the treatment of low back pain syndromes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Feb;91(2):162-76.

    Palangio M, Damask MJ, Morris E, Doyle RT, Jr., Jiang JG, Landau CJ, de Padova A (2000) Combination hydrocodone and ibuprofen versus combination codeine and acetaminophen for the treatment of chronic pain. Clin Ther, 22(7): 879-92.

    Raber S, Hofmann S, Junge K, Momberger H, Kuhn D (1999) Analgesic effect and tolerability of Tramadol 100mg sustained-release capsules in patients with moderate to severe chronic low back pain. Clin Drug Invest, 17: 415-23.

    Ruoff GE, Rosenthal N, Jordan D, Karim R, Kamin M (2003) Tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets for the treatment of chronic lower back pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient study. Clin Ther, 25(4): 1123-41.

    Schnitzer TJ, Gray WL, Paster RZ, Kamin M (2000) Efficacy of tramadol in treatment of chronic low back pain. J Rheumatol, 27(3): 772-8

Antidepresivos

    Alcoff J, Jones E, Rust P, Newman R (1982) Controlled trial of imipramine for chronic low back pain. J Fam Pract, 14(5): 841-6.

    Ansari A (2000) The efficacy of newer antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain: a review of current literature. Harv Rev Psychiatry, 7(5): 257-77.

    Atkinson JH, Slater MA, Williams RA, Zisook S, Patterson TL, Grant I, Wahlgren DR, Abramson I, Garfin SR (1998) A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of nortriptyline for chronic low back pain. Pain, 76(3): 287-96

    Atkinson JH, Slater MA, Wahlgren DR, Williams RA, Zisook S, Pruitt SD, Epping-Jordan JE, Patterson TL, Grant I, Abramson I, Garfin SR (1999) Effects of noradrenergic and serotonergic antidepressants on chronic low back pain intensity. Pain, 83(2): 137-45.

    Dickens C, Jayson M, Sutton C, Creed F (2000) The relationship between pain and depression in a trial using paroxetine in sufferers of chronic low back pain. Psychosomatics, 41(6): 490-9.

    Fishbain D (2000) Evidence-based data on pain relief with antidepressants. Ann Med, 32(5): 305-16.

    Gardela G (1991) [Value of adjuvant treatment with imipramine for lumbosacral pain syndrome]. Pol Tyg Lek, 46(30-31): 544-6.

    Goodkin K, Gullion CM, Agras WS (1990) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of trazodone hydrochloride in chronic low back pain syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 10(4): 269-78.

    Hameroff SR, Cork RC, Scherer K, Crago BR, Neuman C, Womble JR, Davis TP (1982) Doxepin effects on chronic pain, depression and plasma opioids. J Clin Psychiatry, 43(8 Pt 2): 22-7.

    Hameroff SR, Weiss JL, Lerman JC, Cork RC, Watts KS, Crago BR, Neuman CP, Womble JR, Davis TP (1984) Doxepin's effects on chronic pain and depression: a controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry, 45(3 Pt 2): 47-53.

    Jenkins DG, Ebbutt AF, Evans CD (1976) Tofranil in the treatment of low back pain. J Int Med Res, 4(2 Suppl): 28-40.

    Pheasant H, Bursk A, Goldfarb J, Azen SP, Weiss JN, Borelli L (1983) Amitriptyline and chronic low-back pain. A randomized double-blind crossover study. Spine, 8(5): 552-7.

    Salerno SM, Browning R, Jackson JL (2002) The effect of antidepressant treatment on chronic back pain: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med, 162(1): 19-24.

    Schreiber S, Vinokur S, Shavelzon V, Pick CG, Zahavi E, Shir Y (2001) A randomized trial of fluoxetine versus amitriptyline in musculo-skeletal pain. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci, 38(2): 88-94.

    Staiger TO, Gaster B, Sullivan MD, Deyo RA (2003) Systematic review of antidepressants in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Spine, 28(22): 2540-5.

    Storch H, Steck P (1982) [Concomitant thymoleptic therapy in the frame of a controlled study with maprotiline (Ludiomil) in the treatment of backache]. Nervenarzt, 53(8): 445-50.

    Treves R, Montaine de la Roque P, Dumond JJ, Bertin P, Arnaud M, Desproges-Gotteron R (1991) [Prospective study of the analgesic action of clomipramine versus placebo in refractory lumbosciatica (68 cases)]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic, 58(7): 549-52.

    Urquhart DM, Hoving JL, Assendelft WWJJ, Roland M, van Tulder MW. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1

    Ward N, Bokan JA, Phillips M, Benedetti C, Butler S, Spengler D (1984) Antidepressants in concomitant chronic back pain and depression: doxepin and desipramine compared. J Clin Psychiatry, 45(3 Pt 2): 54-9.

    Ward NG (1986) Tricyclic antidepressants for chronic low-back pain. Mechanisms of action and predictors of response. Spine, 11(7): 661-5.

Capsaicina

    Frerick H, Keitel W, Kuhn U, Schmidt S, Bredehorst A, Kuhlmann M. Topical treatment of chronic low back pain with a capsicum plaster. Pain 2003;106(1-2): 59-64.

    Jia-Guang Tang, Hui-Sheng Chen, Wen Yuan, Shuxun Hou, Xinwei Wang, and Xuhui Zhou.The Role of Capsaicin-Sensitive Primary Afferents in Experimental Sciatica Induced by Disc Herniation in Rats. SPINE 2008, Volume 33, Number 2, pp 163–168

    Keitel W, Frerick H, Kuhn U, Schmidt U, Kuhlmann M, Bredehorst A. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung 2001; 51(11): 896-903.

    Mason L, Moore RA, Derry S, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. BMJ 2004; 328(7446): 991.

Gabapentina y Pregabalina.

    Kroenke K, Krebs EE, Bair MJ. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 May-Jun;31(3):206-19. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

    McLeane GJ. Does gabapentin have an analgesic effect on background, movement and referred pain? A randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study. Pain Clnic 2001;13:103-7.

    Romanò CL, Romanò D, Lacerenza M Antineuropathic and antinociceptive drugs combination in patients with chronic low back pain: asystematic review. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:154781. doi: 10.1155/2012/154781. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Fármacos anti-TNF (factor de necrosis tumoral)

    Atcheson SG, Dymeck T. Rapid resolution of chronic sciatica with intravenous infliximab after failed epidural steroid injections. Spine. 2004 Jun 15;29(12):E248-50.

    Cohen SP et al., Epidural steroids, etanercept, or saline in subacute sciatica: A multicenter, randomized trial, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012; 156:551–9.

    Cooper RG. Freemont AJ. TNF-a blockade for herniated intervertebral disc-induced sciatica: A way forward at last?.Rheumatology 2004;43(2):119-121

    Freeman et al., A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of etanercept delivered by the transforaminal route for the treatment of symptomatic lumbosacral disc herniation, presented at Spine Week 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands; as yet unpublished.

    Genevay S et al., Adalimumab in severe and acute sciatica: A multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 2010;62:2339-46.

    Genevay S et al., Adalimumab in acute sciatica reduces the longterm need for surgery: A 3-year
    follow-up of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases,
    2011; 71:560–2.

    Karppinen J, Korhonen T, Malmivaara A, Paimela L, Kyllonen E, Lindgren KA, Rantanen P, Tervonen O, Niinimaki J, Seitsalo S, Hurri H. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, infliximab, used to manage severe sciatica. Spine. 2003 Apr 15;28(8):750-3; discussion 753-4.

    Karppinen J et al., Tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, infliximab, used to manage
    severe sciatica, Spine, 2003;28:750–3.

    Korhonen T et al., The treatment of disc-herniation-induced sciatica with infliximab: One-year
    follow-up results of FIRST II, a randomized controlled trial, Spine, 2006; 31:2759–66.

    Ohtori S et al., Epidural administration of spinal nerves with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, etanercept, compared with dexamethasone for treatment of sciatica in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective randomized study, Spine, 2012;37:439–44.

    Olmarker K, Rydevik B. Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha prevents nucleus pulposus-induced thrombus formation, intraneural edema, and reduction of nerve conduction velocity: possible implications for future pharmacologic treatment strategies of sciatica. Spine. 2001 Apr 15;26(8):863-9

    Olmarker K, Nutu M, Storkson R. Changes in spontaneous behavior in rats exposed to experimental disc herniation are blocked by selective TNF-alpha inhibition. Spine. 2003 Aug 1;28(15):1635-41; discussion 1642.

    Olmarker K, Combination of two cytokine inhibitors reduces nucleus pulposus-induced nerve injury more than using each inhibitor separately, The Open Orthopaedics Journal, 2011;5:151–3.

    Onda A, Yabuki S, Kikuchi S. Effects of neutralizing antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha on nucleus pulposus-induced abnormal nociresponses in rat dorsal horn neurons. Spine. 2003 May 15;28(10):967-72

    Roberts S, Present status of the biology of disc degeneration and inflammatory cascade: Relationship to present and potential treatments, presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine at Spine Week 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands; as yet unpublished.

    Schoene ML, Disc surgery to become obsolete?, The BackLetter, 2003;18(12):133–5.

    Tobinick EL, Britschgi-Davoodifar S. Perispinal TNF-alpha inhibition for discogenic pain. Swiss Med Wkly. 2003 Mar 22;133(11-12):170-7.

    Tobinick EL. Targeted etanercept for discogenic neck pain: uncontrolled, open-label results in two adults. Clin Ther. 2003 Apr;25(4):1211-8.

    Wehling P.Transfer of genes to intervertebral disc cells: proposal for a treatment strategy of spinal disorders by local gene therapy. Joint Bone Spine. 2001 Dec;68(6):554-6.

    Yabuki S, Onda A, Kikuchi S, Myers RR. Prevention of compartment syndrome in dorsal root ganglia caused by exposure to nucleus pulposus. Spine. 2001 Apr 15;26(8):870-5.

7. Intervención neurorreflejoterápica

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi I, et al. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006;15:S192-299.

    Campillo CCasamitjana MCarrillo-Arias FRoyuela AKovacs FMAbraira V..Post-implementation surveillance of a non-pharmacological health technology within a national health service. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2014 Apr;30(2):153-64. doi: 10.1017/S0266462314000063. Epub 2014 May 7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24806084.

    Cano AGestoso MKovacs FHale CMufraggi NAbraira V.The perceptions of people with low back pain treated in the Spanish National Health, and their experience while undergoing a new evidence based treatment. A focus group study . Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36(20):1713-22. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/09638288.2013.869625 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24364535

    Casasa A. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (semFYC), 2003

    Chávida F. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español.Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN), 2003

    Conde JL. Informe sobre neurorreflejoterapia en el tratamiento de la lumbalgia inespecífica realizado a solicitud del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, 20 de febrero de 1996.

    Corcoll J, Orfila J, Tobajas P, Alegre L. Implementation of neuroreflexotherapy for subacute and chronic neck and back pain within the Spanish public health system: audit after one year. Health Policy 2006;79:345-357.

    García Caeiro AL, Martínez Calvo AV. Informe sobre neurorreflejoterapia en el tratamiento de la lumbalgia inespecífica. Santiago de Compostela: Axencia de Avaliación de Tecnoloxías Sanitarias de Galicia (avalia-t); noviembre 2002.

    Grupo PINS. Transferencia a la práctica rutinaria del Sistema Nacional de Salud de la investigación sobre el uso de la intervención neurorreflejoterápica para el tratamiento de las patologías mecánicas del raquis. Resultados de una experiencia piloto Gac Sanit 2004;18:275-286.

    Hernández-Royo A. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Sociedad Española de Rehabilitación (SERMEF), 2003.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, López-Abente G, Pozo F. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el tratamiento de la lumbalgia inespecífica: un ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado, a doble ciego. Med Clín (Barc) 1993; 101: 570-575.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Pozo F, Kleinbaum DG, Beltrán J, Mateo I,  Pérez de Ayala C,  Peña A, Zea A, González Lanza M, Morillas L. Local and Remote Sustained Trigger Point Therapy for Exarcebations of Chronic Low Back Pain. A randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Multicenter Trial. Spine 1997; 22:786-797.

    Kovacs FM, Llobera J, Abraira V, Lázaro P, Pozo F, Kleinbaum D and the KAP Group. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Neuroreflexotherapy for Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain in Routine General Practice. A Cluster Randomized, Controlled Trial. Spine 2002;27:1149-1159.

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Muriel A, Corcoll J, Alegre J, Tomas M, Mir MA, Tobajas P, Gestoso M, Mufraggi N, Gil del Real MT, Zamora J. Prognostic factors for neuroreflexotherapy in the treatment of subacute and chronic neck and back pain. A study of predictors of clinical outcome in routine practice of the Spanish National Health Service. Spine 2007;32: 1621–1628.

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  The Spine Journal 2012;12:1008-1020

    Martín-Rodríguez JG. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Federación Mundial de Sociedades de Neurocirugía, 2003.

    Pallicer A, Corcoll J, Orfila J. Implementation and post-marketing surveillance of neuroreflexotherapy in the routine practice of the Spanish Public Health System. IX International Forum on Low Back Pain Research, Palma de Mallorca, October 2007, disponible en http://www.lbpforum.org/Abstracts/Abstract103.jpg, visitada el 8 de septiembre de 2008

    Palomo L. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Red Española de Atención Primaria,2002.

    Porta M. La intervención neurorreflejoterápica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Barcelona: Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria (SESPAS), 2003.

    Ripoll P, Algara C, Quiñonero JA. Informe Delegado de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología sobre el uso de la intervención neurorreflejoterápica. Sociedad Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología (SECOT), 2003.

    SampietroColom L, Pons JMV. La neuroreflexoteràpia en el tractament del dolor lumbar inespecífic. Barcelona: Agència d’Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques, 2001.

    Urrútia G, Burton AK, Morral A, Bonfill X, Zanoli G. Neuroreflexotherapy for non–specific low-back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Urrútia G, Burton AK, Morral Fernández A, Bonfill Cosp X, Zanoli G. Neuroreflexotherapy for non-specific low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, 2009.
8. Cirugía de la columna vertebral

    Andersen T, Christensen FB, Hansen ES, Bunger C (2003) Pain 5 years after instrumented and non-instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. Eur Spine J, 12(4): 393-9.

    Arts MP, Brand R, van den Akker ME, Koes BW, Bartels RH, Peul WC; Leiden-The Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group (SIPS). Tubular diskectomy vs conventional microdiskectomy for sciatica: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;302(2):149-58.

    Axelsson P, Johnsson R, Stromqvist B, Andreasson H (1999) External pedicular fixation of the lumbar spine: outcome evaluation by functional tests. J Spinal Disord, 12(2): 147-50.

    Axelsson P, Johnsson R, Stromqvist B, Andreasson H (2003) Temporary external pedicular fixation versus definitive bony fusion: a prospective comparative study on pain relief and function. Eur Spine J, 12(1): 41-7.

    Bednar DA, Raducan V (1996) External spinal skeletal fixation in the management of back pain. Clin Orthop, (322): 131-9.

    Boden SD, Zdeblick TA, Sandhu HS, Heim SE (2000) The use of rhBMP-2 in interbody fusion cages. Definitive evidence of osteoinduction in humans: a preliminary report. Spine, 25(3): 376-81.

    Boden SD, Kang J, Sandhu H, Heller JG (2002) Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to achieve posterolateral lumbar spine fusion in humans: a prospective, randomized clinical pilot trial: 2002 Volvo Award in clinical studies. Spine, 27(23): 2662-73.

    Brox JI (2003) Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises for the postlaminectomy syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis, Suppl 1(229).

    Brox JI, Sorensen R, Friis A, Nygaard O, Indahl A, Keller A, Ingebrigtsen T, Eriksen HR, Holm I, Koller AK, Riise R, Reikeras O (2003) Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic low back pain and disc degeneration. Spine, 28(17): 1913-21.

    Burkus JK, Gornet MF, Dickman CA, Zdeblick TA (2002a) Anterior lumbar interbody fusion using rhBMP-2 with tapered interbody cages. J Spinal Disord Tech, 15(5): 337-49.

    Burkus JK, Transfeldt EE, Kitchel SH, Watkins RG, Balderston RA (2002b) Clinical and radiographic outcomes of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Spine, 27(21): 2396-408.

    Christensen BF, Hansen SE, Laursen M, Thomsen K, Bunger CE (2002a) Long-term functional outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation as a support for posterolateral spinal fusion: randomized clinical study with a 5-year follow-up. Spine, 27(12): 1269-77.

    Christensen FB, Hansen ES, Eiskjaer SP, Hoy K, Helmig P, Neumann P, Niedermann B, Bunger CE (2002b) Circumferential lumbar spinal fusion with Brantigan cage versus posterolateral fusion with titanium Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation: a prospective, randomized clinical study of 146 patients. Spine, 27(23): 2674-83.

    Chou R, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, et al. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline.Spine 2009;34(10):1094-109.

    Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquis RW, Atlas SJ, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Grabois M, Murphy DR, Resnick DK, Stanos SP, Shaffer WO, Wall EM, for the American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American pain society. Spine 2009;34:1066–1077.

    de Kleuver M, Oner FC, Jacobs WC (2003) Total disc replacement for chronic low back pain: background and a systematic review of the literature. Eur Spine J, 12(2): 108-16.

    Deisseroth K, Hart RA,. Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Following Elective Lumbar Spinal Arthrodesis Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1628 – 1633.

    Delamarter RB, Fribourg DM, Kanim LE, Bae H (2003) ProDisc artificial total lumbar disc replacement: introduction and early results from the United States clinical trial. Spine, 28(20): S167-75.

    Fairbank JC, Frost H, Wilson-MacDonald J, Yu LM, Barker K, Collins R (2004) The MRC Spine Stabilisation Trial. A randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine versus an intensive rehabilitation programme on outcome in patients with chronic low back pain. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38441.620417.BF (published 23 May 2005)

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Wessberg P, Nordwall A (2001) 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Spine, 26(23): 2521-32; discussion 32-4.

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Wessberg P, Nordwall A (2002) Chronic low back pain and fusion: a comparison of three surgical techniques: a prospective multicenter randomized study from the Swedish lumbar spine study group. Spine, 27(11): 1131-41.

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Nordwall A (2003) Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. A report from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Eur Spine J, 12(2): 178-89.

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Jonsson D, Nordwall A (2004) Cost-effectiveness of lumbar fusion and nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain in the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Spine, 29(4): 421-34; discussion Z3.

    Geisler FH, Blumenthal SL, Guyer RD, McAfee PC, Regan JJ, Johnson JP, Mullin B (2004) Neurological complications of lumbar artificial disc replacement and comparison of clinical results with those related to lumbar arthrodesis in the literature: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized investigational device exemption study of Charite intervertebral disc. Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004. J Neurosurg Spine, 1(2): 143-54.

    Gibson JN, Grant IC, Waddell G (1999) The Cochrane review of surgery for lumbar disc prolapse and degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine, 24(17): 1820-32.

    Gibson JNA, Grant IC, Wadell G. Surgery for lumbar disc prolapse. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Issue 4, 2000. Oxford.

    Grupo de Variaciones en la Práctica Médica de la Red temática de Investigación en Resultados y Servicios de Salud (Grupo VPC-IRYS). Variaciones en cirugía ortopédica y traumatología en el Sistema Nacional de Salud. Atlas VPM, Zaragoza: Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud; 2005;(1)p.17-36.

    Jacobs W,Willems PC, van Limbeek J, Bartels R, Pavlov P, Anderson PG, Oner C. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 1.

    Jacobs W , van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC, Tuschel A, de Kleuver M, , Peul WC, Verbout AJ , Oner FC. Total Disc Replacement for Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Cochrane Review. Spine 2013 ; 38 : 24 – 36

    Jarrett MS, Orlando JF, Grimmer-Somers K.  The effectiveness of land based exercise compared to decompressive surgery in the management of lumbar spinal-canal stenosis: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012, 13:30 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/30.

    Johnsson R, Stromqvist B, Aspenberg P (2002) Randomized radiostereometric study comparing osteogegnic protein-1 (BMP-7) and autograft bone in human noninstrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion: 2002 Volvo Award in clinical studies. Spine, 27(23): 2654-61.

    Karpova A , Arun R , Davis AM , Kulkarni  AV, Massicotte EM , Mikulis DJ , Lubina ZI, Fehlings MG Predictors of Surgical Outcome in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Spine 2013 ; 38 :392 – 400.

    Keeney  BJ, Fulton-Kehoe D,. Turner JA, Wickizer TM, Chan KCh, Franklin GM. Early Predictors of Lumbar Spine Surgery After Occupational Back Injury. Results From a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State. SPINE 2013, Volume 38, Number 11, pp 953–964

    Keller A, Brox JI, Gunderson R, Holm I, Friis A, Reikeras O (2004) Trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and density in patients with chronic low back pain randomized to lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises. Spine, 29(1): 3-8.

    Kovacs FM, Urrútia G, Alarcón JD. Surgery versus conservative treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Spine 2011;36:E1335–E1351

    Kovacs FM, Abraira V, Arana E, Royuela E, Álvarez-Galovich L, Bagó J, Peul WC, Schoene ML, Corbin TP. Concerns over the usefulness of Modic changes for recommending total disc arthroplasty. Spine 2012;11(37):1014–1015

    Ma Y, Guo L, Cai X (2001) [Posterior interbody fusion or posterolateral fusion for discogenic low back pain]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 81(20): 1253-5.

    Madan S, Boeree NR (2003) Outcome of the Graf ligamentoplasty procedure compared with anterior lumbar interbody fusion with the Hartshill horseshoe cage. Eur Spine J, 12(4): 361-8.

    McAfee PC, Lee GA, Fedder IL, Cunningham BW (2002) Anterior BAK instrumentation and fusion: complete versus partial discectomy. Clin Orthop, (394): 55-63.

    McAfee PC, Fedder IL, Saiedy S, Shucosky EM, Cunningham BW (2003a) Experimental design of total disk replacement-experience with a prospective randomized study of the SB Charite. Spine, 28(20): S153-62.

    McAfee PC, Fedder IL, Saiedy S, Shucosky EM, Cunningham BW (2003b) SB Charite disc replacement: report of 60 prospective randomized cases in a US center. J Spinal Disord Tech, 16(4): 424-33.

    Mannion AF, Brox JI, Fairbank JC. Comparison of spinal fusion and nonoperative treatment in patients withchronic low back pain: long-term follow-up of three randomized controlled trials. Spine J. 2013 Nov;13(11):1438-48. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.06.101. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

    Nikolaidis I, Fouyas IP, Sandercock PAG, Statham PF. Surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1

    Oestergaard LG, Nielsen CV, Bünger CE, Sogaard R, Fruensgaard S, Helmig P, Christensen FB. The Effect of Early Initiation of Rehabilitation After Lumbar Spinal Fusion. A Randomized Clinical Study. Spine 2012 ; 37 :1803 – 1809

    Oliver Rivero-Arias, Helen Campbell, Alastair Gray, Jeremy Fairbank, Helen Frost, James Wilson- MacDonald for the Spine Stabilisation Trial Group.  Surgical stabilisation of the spine compared with a programme of intensive rehabilitation for the management of patients with chronic low back pain: cost utility analysis based on a randomised controlled trial. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38441.429618.BF (published 23 May 2005)

    Ostelo RWJG, Costa LOP, Maher CG, de Vet HCW, van Tulder MW. Rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art.

    Pearson A, Lurie J, Tosteson  T, Zhao W , Abdu W , Mirza S, Weinstein J. Who Should Have Surgery for an Intervertebral Disc Herniation? Comparative Effectiveness Evidence From the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine 2012 ; 37 : 140 – 149

    Peul WC, van Houwelingen HC, van de Hout W, Brand R, Eekhol JAH, Tans JTJ, Thomeer RTWM, Koes BW Surgery versus Prolonged Conservative Treatment for Sciatica. N Engl J Med 2007;356:2245-56.

    Peul WC, Van den Hout WB, Brand R, Thomeer RT, Koes BW, for the Leiden-The Hague Spine-Intervention-Prognostic-Study Group. Prolonged conservative care versus early surgery in patients with sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation: two year results of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;10.1136/bmj.a143.

    Rihn JA, Radcliff K, Hilibrand AS, Anderson DT, Zhao W, Lurie J, Vaccaro AR, Freedman MK, Albert TJ, Weinstein JN.Does Obesity Affect Outcomes of Treatment for Lumbar Stenosis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis?. Analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1933 – 1946.

    Sasso RC, Kitchel SH, Dawson EG (2004) A prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using a titanium cylindrical threaded fusion device. Spine, 29(2): 113-22; discussion 21-2.

    Schoene M. Spinal fusión for degenerative disc disease: An operation in search of an indication. The Back Letter 2013;4(28):37

    Sharma H, Lee SW, Cole AA. The management of weakness caused by lumbar andlumbosacral nerve root compression.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Nov;94(11):1442-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109619

    Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE (1997) 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Spine, 22(24): 2813-22.

    Vaccaro AR, Fisher CG , Angevine PD , Patel AA, Mulpuri K , Thomas KC, Whang PG , Prasad SK.  Evidence-Based Recommendations for Spine Surgery. SPINE 2012 ; 37, 15, E875–E882

    van den Hout WB, Peul WC, Koes BW, Brand R, Kievit J, Thomeer RT; Leiden-The Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group. Prolonged conservative care versus early surgery in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation: cost utility analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7657):1351-4. Epub 2008 May 23.

    Wang Y, Nataraj A. Foot drop resulting from degenerative lumbar spinal diseases: clinical characteristics and prognosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014 Feb;117:33-9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24438801

    Weber C1, Kvistad KA, Moholdt VA, Nygaard ØP, Solheim O.    Repeated 3.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Clinically Successful Lumbar Disc Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Feb;41(3):239-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26866738

    Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson ANA, Hanscom B, Skineer JS, Abdu WA, Hilibrand AS, Boden SD, Deyo RA. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): A Randomized Trial JAMA. 2006;296:2441-2450

    Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Tosteson ANA, Blood EA,Abdu WA, Herkowitz H, Hilibrand A, Albert T, Fischgrund J. Surgical Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Four-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) Spine 2008;33:2789–2800

    Willems PC et al. Spinal fusion for chronic low back pain. Systematic review on the accuracy of tests for patient selection. The Spine Journal 2013;12(2):99-109
    Willems PC et al. Clinical decision making in spinal fusión for chronic low bakc pain. Results of a nationwide survey among spine surgeons. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000391. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000391

    Zhao J, Wang X, Hou T, He S (2002) One versus two BAK fusion cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion to L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis: a randomized, controlled prospective study in 25 patients with minimum two-year follow-up. Spine, 27(24): 2753-7.

    Zigler JE (2003) Clinical results with ProDisc: European experience and U.S. investigation device exemption study. Spine, 28(20): S163-6.

    Zigler JE, Burd TA, Vialle EN, Sachs BL, Rashbaum RF, Ohnmeiss DD (2003) Lumbar spine arthroplasty: early results using the ProDisc II: a prospective randomized trial of arthroplasty versus fusion. J Spinal Disord Tech, 16(4): 352-61

DISPOSITIVOS INTERESPINOSOS

    Grant Skidmore, Stacey J. Ackerman, Christopher Bergin, Dan Ross, Jesse Butler, Manish Suthar, Joshua Rittenberg. Cost-effectiveness of the X-STOP® Interspinous Spacer for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. A Comparison with Conservative Care and Laminectomy.  SPINE 2011, Volume 36, Number 5, pp E345–E356.

    Kim DH, Shanti N, Tantorski ME, Shaw JD, Li L, Martha JF, Thomas AJ, Parazin SJ, Rencus TC, Kwon B. Association between degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinous process fracture after interspinous process spacer surgery. Spine J. 2012 Jun;12(6):466-72. Epub 2012 May 22.

     Kondrashov DG, Hannibal M, Hsu KY, Zucherman JF. Interspinous Process Decompression With the X-STOP Device for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. A 4-Year Follow-Up Study. J Spinal Disord Tech _ Volume 19, Number 5, July 2006

    Miller LE, Block JE. Interspinous spacer implant in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: preliminary results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:823509. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

    Patel VVWhang PGHaley TRBradley WDNunley PDDavis RPMiller LEBlock JEGeisler FH. Superion Interspinous Process Spacer for Intermittent NeurogenicClaudication Secondary to Moderate Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Two-Year Results From a Randomized Controlled FDA-IDE Pivotal Trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Dec 9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494323

    Patil S, Burton M, Storey C, Glenn C, Marino A, Nanda A. Evaluation of Interspinous Process Distraction Device (X-STOP) in a Representative Patient Cohort. World Neurosurg. 2012 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 22484765
     
    Wouter A. Moojen, Mark P. Arts, Ronald H. M. A. Bartels , Wilco C. H. Jacobs , Wilco C. Peul.
    Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Spine J (2011) 20:1596–1606

    Zucherman JF , Hsu KY, Hartjen CA, Mehalic TF, Implicito DA, Martin MJ, Johnson DR II, Skidmore GA, Vessa PP, Dwyer JW, Puccio ST, Cauthen JC, Ozuna RM. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Trial Evaluating the X STOP Interspinous Process Decompression System for the Treatment of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication Two-Year Follow-Up Results. SPINE  2005.Volume 30, Number 12, pp 1351–1358

IDET e IRFT (Electrotermoterapia intradiscal y termocoagulación intradiscal por radiofrecuencia)

    Barendse GA, van Den Berg SG, Kessels AH, Weber WE, van Kleef M (2001) Randomized controlled trial of percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation for chronic discogenic back pain: lack of effect from a 90-second 70 C lesion. Spine, 26(3): 287-92.

    Biyani A, Andersson GB, Chaudhary H, An HS (2003) Intradiscal electrothermal therapy: a treatment option in patients with internal disc disruption. Spine, 28(15 Suppl): S8-14.

    Bono CM, Iki K, Jalota A, Dawson K, Garfin SR (2004) Temperatures within the lumbar disc and endplates during intradiscal electrothermal therapy: formulation of a predictive temperature map in relation to distance from the catheter. Spine, 29(10): 1124-9; discussion 30-1.

    Carragee EJ, Hannibal M (2004) Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am, 35(1): 7-16.

    Cohen SP, Larkin T, Abdi S, Chang A, Stojanovic M (2003) Risk factors for failure and complications of intradiscal electrothermal therapy: a pilot study. Spine, 28(11): 1142-7.

    Davis TT, Delamarter RB, Sra P, Goldstein TB (2004) The IDET procedure for chronic discogenic low back pain. Spine, 29(7): 752-6.

    Ercelen O, Bulutcu E, Oktenoglu T, Sasani M, Bozkus H, Cetin Saryoglu A, Ozer F (2003) Radiofrequency lesioning using two different time modalities for the treatment of lumbar discogenic pain: a randomized trial. Spine, 28(17): 1922-7.

    Freeman BJ, Walters RM, Moore RJ, Fraser RD (2003a) Does intradiscal electrothermal therapy denervate and repair experimentally induced posterolateral annular tears in an animal model? Spine, 28(23): 2602-8.

    Freeman BJC, Fraser RD, Cain CMJ, Hall DJ (2003b) A randomised, double-blind, controlled efficacy study: intradiscal electrotheraml therapy (IDET) versus placebo for the treatment of chronic discogendic low back pain. Eur Spine J, 12(Suppl 1): S23.

    Karasek M, Bogduk N (2000) Twelve-month follow-up of a controlled trial of intradiscal thermal anuloplasty for back pain due to internal disc disruption. Spine, 25(20): 2601-7.

    Kleinstueck FS, Diederich CJ, Nau WH, Puttlitz CM, Smith JA, Bradford DS, Lotz JC (2003) Temperature and thermal dose distributions during intradiscal electrothermal therapy in the cadaveric lumbar spine. Spine, 28(15): 1700-8; discussion 9.

    Oh WS, Shim JC (2004) A randomized controlled trial of radiofrequency denervation of the ramus communicans nerve for chronic discogenic low back pain. Clin J Pain, 20(1): 55-60.

    Pauza KJ, Howell S, Dreyfuss P, Peloza JH, Dawson K, Bogduk N (2004) A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal therapy for the treatment of discogenic low back pain. Spine J, 4(1): 27-35.

    Saal JA, Saal JS (2002) Intradiscal electrothermal treatment for chronic discogenic low back pain: prospective outcome study with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Spine, 27(9): 966-73; discussion 73-4.

    Urrutia G, Kovacs FM, Nishishinya B, Olabe J. Percutaneous thermocoagulation intradiscal techniques for discogenic low back pain. A systematic review. Spine 2007;32(10):1146–1154

    Wetzel FT, McNally TA, Phillips FM (2002) Intradiscal electrothermal therapy used to manage chronic discogenic low back pain: new directions and interventions. Spine, 27(22): 2621-6

Estenosis espinal

    Ammendolia C, Stuber K, de Bruin LK, Furlan AD, Kennedy CA, Rampersaud YR, Steenstra IA, Pennick V. Nonoperative treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication: a systematic review.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37(10):E609-16.

    Abdu WA, Lurie JD, Spratt KF, et al. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine 2009;34:2351–2360.

    Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI, Kreuter W, Goodman DG, Jarvik J. Trends, major medical complications and charges associated with surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis in older adults. JAMA 2010;303(13):1259-1265

    Deyo RA , Martin BI , Ching A,. Tosteson A, Jarvik JG , Kreuter W, Mirza SK Interspinous Spacers Compared With Decompression or Fusion for Lumbar Stenosis.Complications and Repeat Operations in the Medicare Population. Spine 2013,Volume 38, Number 10, 865–872.

    Fritzell P, Hagg O, Nordwall A; Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. Eur Spine J. 2003;12(2):178-189.

    Kanno H, Endo T, Ozawa H, Koizumi Y, Morozumi N, Itoi E, Ishii Y. Axial Loading During Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis. Does It Reproduce the Positional Change of the Dural Sac Detected by Upright Myelography? .Spine 2012 ; 37 : E985 – E992.

    Kobayashi, S. et al. Effect of lumbar nerve root compression on primary sensory neurons and their central branches: changes in the nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin. Spine 2005;30:276–282.

    Kobayashi, S. et al. Blood circulation of cauda equina and nerve root. Clin. Calcium 2005;15, 63–72.

    Kovacs FM, Urrútia G, Alarcón JD. Surgery versus conservative treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Spine 2011;36:E1335–E1351

    Kovacs FM, Seco J, Royuela A, Corcoll J, Abraria V and the Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice. Results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.  The Spine Journal 2012;12:1008-1020

    Knutsson B , Michaëlsson K , Sandén B. Obesity Is Associated With Inferior Results After Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. A Study of 2633 Patients From the Swedish Spine Register. Spine 2013 ;38:435–441.

    Mirza SK, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, et al. Development of an index to characterize the “invasiveness” of spine surgery: validation by comparison to blood loss and operative time. Spine 2008; 33(24):2651-2661.

    Moojen WA, Arts MP, Jacobs WC, van Zwet EW, van den Akker-van Marle ME, Koes BW, Vleggeert-Lankamp CL, Peul WC; Leiden-The Hague Spine Intervention Prognostic Study Group. Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2013 Nov 14;347:f6415. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f6415.

    Porter, R. W. Spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication. Spine 1996;21, 2046–2052.

    Schepper EIT , Overdevest GM , Suri P , Peul  WC, Oei  EHG, Koes BW , Bierma-Zeinstra SMA , Luijsterburg PAJ . Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis An Updated Systematic Review of the Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests . Spine 2013 ;38:E469–E481

    Strömqvist BH1, Berg S, Gerdhem P, Johnsson R, Möller A, Sahlstrand T, Soliman A, Tullberg T.Xstop versus decompressive surgery for lumbar neurogenic intermittentclaudication: randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Aug 1;38(17):1436-42

    Takahashi, K. et al. Changes in epidural pressure during walking in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine 1995;20, 2746–2749.

    Takahashi, K., Miyazaki, T., Takino, T., Matsui, T., Tomita, K. Epidural pressure measurements. Relationship between epidural pressure and posture in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine 1995;20:650–653.

    Thomsen K, Christensen FB, Eiskjaer SP, Hansen ES, Fruensgaard S, Bunger CE. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective randomized clinical study. Spine 1997;22(24):2813-2822.
9.Cirugia y Unidad del dolor
Electroestimulación medular

    Burchiel KJ, Anderson VC, Brown FD, Fessler RG, Friedman WA, Pelofsky S, Weiner RL, Oakley J, Shatin D (1996) Prospective, multicenter study of spinal cord stimulation for relief of chronic back and extremity pain. Spine, 21(23): 2786-94.

    Dario A, Fortini G, Bertollo D, Bacuzzi A, Grizzeti C, Cuffari S (2001) Treatment of failed back surgery syndrome. Neuromodulation, 19: 1201-6.

    Kumar K, Malik S, Demeria D (2002) Treatment of chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation versus alternative therapies: cost-effectiveness analysis. Neurosurgery, 51(1): 106-15; discussion 15-6.

    North RB, Kidd DH, Piantadosi S (1995) Spinal cord stimulation versus reoperation for failed back surgery syndrome: a prospective, randomized study design. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien), 64: 106-8.

    Ohnmeiss DD, Rashbaum RF, Bogdanffy GM (1996) Prospective outcome evaluation of spinal cord stimulation in patients with intractable leg pain. Spine, 21(11): 1344-50; discussion 51.

    Turner JA, Loeser JD, Deyo RA, Sanders SB (2004) Spinal cord stimulation for patients with failed back surgery syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications. Pain, 108(1-2): 137-47

Lesión del ganglio dorsal por radiofrecuencia
    Geurts JW, van Wijk RM, Wynne HJ, Hammink E, Buskens E, Lousberg R, Knape JT, Groen GJ (2003) Radiofrequency lesioning of dorsal root ganglia for chronic lumbosacral radicular pain: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet, 361(9351): 21-6
10. Manipulaciones vertebrales

    Abenhaim L, Bergeron AM (1992) Twenty years of randomized clinical trials of manipulative therapy for back pain: a review. Clin Invest Med, 15(6): 527-35.

    Anderson R, Meeker WC, Wirick BE, Mootz RD, Kirk DH, Adams A (1992) A meta-analysis of clinical trials of spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 15(3): 181-94.

    Andersson GB, Lucente T, Davis AM, Kappler RE, Lipton JA, Leurgans S (1999) A comparison of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for patients with low back pain. N Engl J Med, 341(1426-1431).

    Assendelft WJ, Koes BW, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM (1992) The efficacy of chiropractic manipulation for back pain: blinded review of relevant randomized clinical trials. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 15(8): 487-94.

    Assendelft WJ, Koes BW, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM (1996) The effectiveness of chiropractic for treatment of low back pain: an update and attempt at statistical pooling. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 19(8): 499-507.

    Assendelft WJ, Lankhorst GJ (1998) [Effectiveness of manipulative therapy in low back pain: systematic literature reviews and guidelines are inconclusive]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 142(13): 684-7.

    Assendelft WJ, Morton SC, Yu EI, Suttorp MJ, Shekelle PG (2003) Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies. Ann Intern Med, 138(11): 871-81.

    Assendelft WJ, Morton SC, Yu EI, Suttorp MJ, Shekelle PG (2004) Spinal manipulative therapy for low-back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.

    Assendelft WJJ, Morton SC, Yu Emily I, Suttorp MJ, Shekelle PG. Tratamiento de manipulación espinal para el dolor lumbar.(Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Aure OF, Nilsen JH, Vasseljen O (2003) Manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Spine, 28(6): 525-31; discussion 31-2.

    Bronfort G, Goldsmith CH, Nelson CF, Boline PD, Anderson AV (1996) Trunk exercise combined with spinal manipulative or NSAID therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 19(9): 570-82.

    Bronfort G (1999) Spinal manipulation: current state of research and its indications. Neurol Clin, 17(1): 91-111.

    Brox JI, Hagen KB, Juel NG, Storheim K (1999) [Is exercise therapy and manipulation effective in low back pain?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 119(14): 2042-50.

    Cassidy JD, Thiel HW, Kirkaldy-Willis WH (1993) Side posture manipulation for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 16(2): 96-103.

    Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Deyo RA, Shekelle PG (2003) A review of the evidence for the effectiveness, safety, and cost of acupuncture, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation for back pain. Ann Intern Med, 138(11): 898-906.

    Chiradejnant A, Maher CG, Latimer J, Stepkovitch N (2003) Efficacy of "therapist-selected" versus "randomly selected" mobilisation techniques for the treatment of low back pain: a randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother, 49(4): 233-41.

    Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman MI, Lantz C, Schneider MJ (2001) Chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions: characterizing the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 24(6): 407-24.

    Donelson R, Grant , Kamps C, et al. Pain response to sagital end-range spinal motion. A prospective, randomised, multientered trial. Spine 1991;16:5206-5212.

    Ernst E (2001) Prospective investigations into the safety of spinal manipulation. J Pain Symptom Manage, 21(3): 238-42.

    Ernst E, Harkness E (2001) Spinal manipulation: a systematic review of sham-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials. J Pain Symptom Manage, 22(4): 879-89.

    Evans DP, Burch MS, K.N. L, Roberts EE, Roberts GM (1978) Lumbar spinal manipulation on trial. Part 1: Clinical assessment. Rheumatol Rehabil, 17: 46-53.

    Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, Herbert R, Maher CG (2002) Does spinal manipulative therapy help people with chronic low back pain? Aust J Physiother, 48(4): 277-84.

    Gatterman MI, Cooperstein R, Lantz C, Perle SM, Schneider MJ (2001) Rating specific chiropractic technique procedures for common low back conditions. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 24(7): 449-56.

    Gibson T, Grahame R, Harkness J, Woo P, Blagrave P, Hills R (1985) Controlled comparison of short-wave diathermy treatment with osteopathic treatment in non-specific low back pain. Lancet, 1(8440): 1258-61.

    Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines TA, Goldsmith CH, Kay T, Aker P, Bronfort G, Cervical overview group. Movilización activa y pasiva para trastornos mecánicos de cuello (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Harvey E, Burton AK, Klaber Moffett J, Breen A (2003) Spinal manipulation for low back pain: a treatment package agreed by the UK chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy professional associations. Manual Therapy, 8: 46-51.

    Hemmila HM, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Levoska S, Puska P (1997) Does folk medicine work? A randomized clinical trial on patients with prolonged back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 78(6): 571-7.

    Hemmila HM, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Levoska S, Puska P (2002) Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy, and physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 25(2): 99-104.

     Herzog W, Conway PJW, Wilcox BJ (1991) Effects of different treatment modalities on gait symmetry and clinical measures for sacroiliac joint patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 14: 104-9.

    Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Harber P, Kominski GF, Belin TR, Yu F, Adams AH (2002) A randomized trial of medical care with and without physical therapy and chiropractic care with and without physical modalities for patients with low back pain: 6-month follow-up outcomes from the UCLA low back pain study. Spine, 27(20): 2193-204.

    Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG (1991) Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review. BMJ, 303(6813): 1298-303.

    Koes B, Bouter L, H vM, Essers A, Verstegen G, Hofhuizen D, Houben J, Knipschild P (1992) The effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and treatment by the general practitioner for nonspecific back and neck complaints: A randomized clinical tria. Spine, 17(1): 28-35.

    Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM (1996) Spinal manipulation for low back pain. An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine, 21(24): 2860-71; discussion 72-3.

    Kovacs FM, Lazaro P, Muriel A, Abraira V, Zamora J, Fernandez C et al. Does
    the UK BEAM trial really support the use of manipulation? URL:
    http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/329/7479/1377#responses (available on line
    12 January 2005)

    Leboeuf-Yde C, Hennius B, Rudberg E, Leufvenmark P, Thunman M (1997) Side effects of chiropractic treatment: a prospective study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 20(8): 511-5.

    Licciardone JC, Stoll ST, Fulda KG, Russo DP, Siu J, Winn W, Swift J, Jr. (2003) Osteopathic manipulative treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 28(13): 1355-62.

    Niemisto L, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Rissanen P, Lindgren K-A, Sarna S, Hurri H (2003) A randomized trial of combined manipulation, stabilising exercises, and physician consultation compared to physician consultation alone for chronic low back pain. Spine, 28(19): 2185-91.

     Niemisto L, Sarna S, Lahtinen-Suopanki T, Lindgren KA, Hurri H (2004) Predictive factors for 1-year outcome of chronic low back pain following manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation or physician consultation alone. J Rehabil Med, 36(3): 104-9.

     Ongley MJ, Klein RG, Dorman TA, Eek BC, Hubert LJ (1987) A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. Lancet, 2(8551): 143-6.

    Ottenbacher K, DiFabio RP (1985) Efficacy of spinal manipulation/mobilization therapy. A meta-analysis. Spine, 10(9): 833-7.

    Pope MH, Phillips RB, Haugh LD, Hsieh CY, MacDonald L, Haldeman S (1994) A prospective randomized three-week trial of spinal manipulation, transcutaneous muscle stimulation, massage and corset in the treatment of subacute low back pain. Spine, 19(22): 2571-7.

    Postacchini F, Facchini M, Palieri P (1988) Efficacy of various forms of conservative treatment in low back pain: a comparative study. Neurol Orthop, 6: 113-6.

    Pustaver MR (1994) Mechanical low back pain: etiology and conservative management. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 17(6): 376-84.

    Rasmussen-Barr E, Nilsson-Wikmar L, Arvidsson I (2003) Stabilizing training compared with manual treatment in sub-acute and chronic low-back pain. Man Ther, 8(4): 233-41.

    Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2

    Rubinstein SM, Terwee  CB,  Assendelft WJJ, Boer MR, van Tulder M. Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain . An Update of the Cochrane Review. Spine 2013 ; 38 : E158 – E177.

    Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, Hurwitz EL, Brook RH (1992) Spinal manipulation for low-back pain. Ann Intern Med, 117(7): 590-8.

    Shekelle PG, Coulter I, Hurwitz EL, Genovese B, Adams AH, Mior SA, Brook RH (1998) Congruence between decisions to initiate chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain and appropriateness criteria in North America. Ann Intern Med, 129(1): 9-17.

    Skargren E, Oberg B, Carlsson P, Gade M (1997) Cost and Effectiveness Analysis of Chiropractic and Physiotherapy Treatment for Low Back and Neck Pain.  Six-Month Follow-Up. Spine, 22(18): 2167-77.

    Stevinson C, Ernst E (2002) Risks associated with spinal manipulation. Am J Med, 112(7): 566-71.

    Timm KE (1994) A randomized-control study of active and passive treatments for chronic low back pain following L5 laminectomy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 20(6): 276-86.

    Triano JJ, McGregor M, Hondras MA, Brennan PC (1995) Manipulative therapy versus education programs in chronic low back pain. Spine, 20(8): 948-55.

    UK BEAM trial team. Brealey S, Coulton S, Farrin A, Morton V, Torgerson D, Burton AK, Garratt A, Harvey E, Letley L, Martin J, Vickers M, Whyte K, Manca A, Klaber Moffett J, Russell I, Underwood M, Williams M (2004a) UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: Cost-effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. British Medical Journal, In Press. (2004, Nov 29; [Epub ahead of print]) BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38282.607859.AE (published 29 November 2004)

    van Tulder MW, Assendelft WJ, Koes BW, Bouter LM (1997) Method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group for Spinal Disorders. Spine, 22(20): 2323-30.

    Waagen GN, Haldeman S, Cook G, Lopez D, DeBoer KF (1986) Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low back pain. Manual Med, 2: 63-7.

    Walker B, French S, Grant W, Green S. A Cochrane Review of Combined Chiropractic
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11. Terapia cognitiva multimodal

    Altmaier EM, Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Weinstein JN, Kao CF (1992) The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the rehabilitation of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial evaluation. Pain, 49(3): 329-35.

    Basler HD, Jakle C, Kroner-Herwig B (1997) Incorporation of cognitive-behavioral treatment into the medical care of chronic low back patients: a controlled randomized study in German pain treatment centers. Patient Educ Couns, 31(2): 113-24.

    Brox JI, Sorensen R, Friis A, Nygaard O, Indahl A, Keller A, Ingebrigtsen T, Eriksen HR, Holm I, Koller AK, Riise R, Reikeras O (2003) Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic low back pain and disc degeneration. Spine, 28(17): 1913-21.

    Bru E, Mykletun R, Berge W, Svebak S (1994) Effects of different psychological interventions on neck, shoulder and low back pain in female hospital staff. Psychology and Health, 9: 371-82.

    Dufour N, Thamsborg G, Oefeldt A, Lundsgaard C,  Stender S. Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain A Randomized, Clinical Trial Comparing Group-Based Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and IntensiveIndividual Therapist-Assisted Back Muscle Strengthening Exercises. SPINE2010,  Volume 35, Number 5, pp 469–476

    Fordyce WE (1976)  Behavioural methods for chronic pain and illness. Mosby.  St. Louis.

    Goossens ME, Rutten-Van Molken MP, Kole-Snijders AM, Vlaeyen JW, Van Breukelen G, Leidl R (1998) Health economic assessment of behavioural rehabilitation in chronic low back pain: a randomised clinical trial. Health Econ, 7(1): 39-51.

    Haldorsen EH, Wormgoor MEA, Bjorholt PG, Ursin H (1998) Predictors for outcome of a functional restoration program for low back patients: A 12 months follow-up study. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil, 8: 103-9.

    Henschke N, Ostelo RWJG, van Tulder MW, Vlaeyen JWS, Morley S, Assendelft WJJ, Main CJ. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 7.

    Jensen IB, Bodin L, Ljungqvist T, Gunnar Bergstrom K, Nygren A (2000) Assessing the needs of patients in pain: a matter of opinion? Spine, 25(21): 2816-23.

    Kalauokalani D, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA (2001) Lessons from a trial of acupuncture and massage for low back pain: patient expectations and treatment effects. Spine, 26(13): 1418-24.

    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, Roine R, Jauhiainen M, Hurri H, Koes B. Rehabilitación biopsicosocial multidisciplinaria para el dolor lumbar subagudo en adultos en edad activa. (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4

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    Kole-Snijders AM, Vlaeyen JW, Goossens ME, Rutten-van Molken MP, Heuts PH, van Breukelen G, van Eek H (1999) Chronic low-back pain: what does cognitive coping skills training add to operant behavioral treatment? Results of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67(6): 931-44.

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    Lindstrom I, Ohlund C, Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson LE, Nachemson A (1992b) Mobility, strength, and fitness after a graded activity program for patients with subacute low back pain. A randomized prospective clinical study with a behavioral therapy approach. Spine, 17(6): 641-52.

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    Nicholas MK, Wilson PH, Goyen J (1991) Operant-behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatment for chronic low back pain. Behav Res Ther, 29(3): 225-38.

    Nicholas MK, Wilson PH, Goyen J (1992) Comparison of cognitive-behavioral group treatment and an alternative non-psychological treatment for chronic low back pain. Pain, 48(3): 339-47.

    Nouwen A (1983) EMG biofeedback used to reduce standing levels of paraspinal muscle tension in chronic low back pain. Pain, 17(4): 353-60.

    Ostelo RWJG, de Vet HC, Vlaeyen J, Kerkhoffs MR, Berfelo WM, Wolters PMJC, van den Brandt PA (2003) Behavioral graded activity following first-time lumbar disc surgery. 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine, 28: 1757-65.

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    Spinhoven P, Ter Kuile M, Kole-Snijders AM, Hutten Mansfeld M, Den Ouden DJ, Vlaeyen JW (2004) Catastrophizing and internal pain control as mediators of outcome in the multidisciplinary treatment of chronic low back pain. Eur J Pain, 8(3): 211-9.

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    Staal JB, Hlobil H, Twisk JW, Smid T, Koke AJ, van Mechelen W (2004) Graded activity for low back pain in occupational health care: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med, 140(2): 77-84.

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    Turner JA (1982) Comparison of group progressive-relaxation training and cognitive-behavioral group therapy for chronic low back pain. J Consult Clin Psychol, 50(5): 757-65.

    Turner JA (1996) Educational and behavioral interventions for back pain in primary care. Spine, 21(24): 2851-7; discussion 8-9.

    Turner JA, Clancy S (1988) Comparison of operant behavioral and cognitive-behavioral group treatment for chronic low back pain. J Consult Clin Psychol, 56(2): 261-6.

    Turner JA, Clancy S, McQuade KJ, Cardenas DD (1990) Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: a component analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol, 58(5): 573-9.

    Turner JA, Jensen MP (1993) Efficacy of cognitive therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain, 52(2): 169-77.

    van den Hout JH, Vlaeyen JW, Heuts PH, Zijlema JH, Wijnen JA (2003) Secondary prevention of work-related disability in nonspecific low back pain: does problem-solving therapy help? A randomized clinical trial. Clin J Pain, 19(2): 87-96.

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12. Programas multidisciplinarios de rehabilitación

    Alaranta H, Rytokoski U, Rissanen A, Talo S, Ronnemaa T, Puukka P, Karppi SL, Videman T, Kallio V, Slatis P (1994) Intensive physical and psychosocial training program for patients with chronic low back pain. A controlled clinical trial. Spine, 19(12): 1339-49.

    Altmaier EM, Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Weinstein JN, Kao CF (1992) The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the rehabilitation of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial evaluation. Pain, 49(3): 329-35.

    Basler HD, Jakle C, Kroner-Herwig B (1997) Incorporation of cognitive-behavioral treatment into the medical care of chronic low back patients: a controlled randomized study in German pain treatment centers. Patient Educ Couns, 31(2): 113-24.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Ostenfeld S, Bush E, Andersen (1995) Active treatment programs for patients with chronic low back pain: a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study. Eur Spine J, 4(3): 148-52.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Vaegter K, Lund C, Frolund L, Holm L (1996) Multidisciplinary intensive treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized, prospective study. Cleve Clin J Med, 63(1): 62-9.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Lund C, Kirkbak S, Ostenfeld S (1997) Comparison of three intensive programs for chronic low back pain patients: a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study with one-year follow-up. Scand J Rehabil Med, 29(2): 81-9.

    Bendix AE, Bendix T, Haestrup C, Busch E (1998a) A prospective, randomized 5-year follow-up study of functional restoration in chronic low back pain patients. Eur Spine J, 7(2): 111-9.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Labriola M, Boekgaard P (1998b) Functional restoration for chronic low back pain. Two-year follow-up of two randomized clinical trials. Spine, 23(6): 717-25.

    Bendix T, Bendix A, Labriola M, Haestrup C, Ebbehoj N (2000) Functional restoration versus outpatient physical training in chronic low back pain: a randomized comparative study. Spine, 25(19): 2494-500.

    Corey DT, Koepfler LE, Etlin D, Day HI (1996) A limited functional restoration program for injured workers: a randomised trial. J Occup Rehabil, 6: 239-49.

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    Dufour N, Thamsborg G, Oefeldt A, Lundsgaard C,  Stender S. Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain A Randomized, Clinical Trial Comparing Group-Based Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and IntensiveIndividual Therapist-Assisted Back Muscle Strengthening Exercises. SPINE2010,  Volume 35, Number 5, pp 469–476

    Fordyce WE, Fowler RS, Jr., Lehmann JF, Delateur BJ, Sand PL, Trieschmann RB (1973) Operant conditioning in the treatment of chronic pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 54(9): 399-408.

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    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, Roine R, Jauhiainen M, Hurri H, Koes B. Rehabilitación biopsicosocial multidisciplinaria para el dolor lumbar subagudo en adultos en edad activa. (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4

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    Nicholas MK, Wilson PH, Goyen J (1991) Operant-behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatment for chronic low back pain. Behav Res Ther, 29(3): 225-38.

    Nicholas MK, Wilson PH, Goyen J (1992) Comparison of cognitive-behavioral group treatment and an alternative non-psychological treatment for chronic low back pain. Pain, 48(3): 339-47.

    Rose MJ, Reilly JP, Pennie B, Bowen-Jones K, Stanley IM, Slade PD (1997) Chronic low back pain rehabilitation programs: a study of the optimum duration of treatment and a comparison of group and individual therapy. Spine, 22(19): 2246-51; discussion 52-3.

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    Skouen JS, Grasdal AL, Haldorsen EM, Ursin H (2002) Relative cost-effectiveness of extensive and light multidisciplinary treatment programs versus treatment as usual for patients with chronic low back pain on long-term sick leave: randomized controlled study. Spine, 27(9): 901-9; discussion 9-10.

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    Turner JA, Clancy S, McQuade KJ, Cardenas DD (1990) Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: a component analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol, 58(5): 573-9.

    Vlaeyen JW, Linton SJ (2000) Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain, 85(3): 317-32

    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A,  van Tulder  M, Roine R, Jauhiainen M, Hurri H, Koes B. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults. (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
13. Infiltraciones epidurales

    Abram SE, O'Connor TC (1996) Complications associated with epidural steroid injections. Reg Anesth, 21(2): 149-62.

    Benoist M, Boulu P, Hayem G. Epidural steroid injections in the management of low-back pain with radiculopathy: an update of their efficacy and safety. Eur Spine J. 2012 Feb;21(2):204-13. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

    Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G et al. Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical practice guideline no. 14. AHCPR publication no. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1994.

    Cannon DT, Aprill CN (2000) Lumbosacral epidural steroid injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 81(3 Suppl 1): S87-98; quiz S9-100.

    Carette S, Leclaire R, Marcoux S, Morin F, Blaise GA, St-Pierre A, Truchon R, Parent F, Levesque J, Bergeron V, Montminy P, Blanchette C (1997) Epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica due to herniated nucleus pulposus. N Engl J Med, 336(23): 1634-40.

    Devoize JL, Fuzeau C, Pin JC, Bonnefoy M (1993) [Chemical meningitis after intradural injection of corticosteroids. Recovery without antibiotics]. Presse Med, 22(18): 879.

    Devulder J, Deene P, De Laat M, Van Bastelaere M, Brusselmans G, Rolly G (1999) Nerve root sleeve injections in patients with failed back surgery syndrome: a comparison of three solutions. Clin J Pain, 15(2): 132-5.

    Heavner JE, Racz GB, Raj P (1999) Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty: prospective evaluation of 0.9% NaCl versus 10% NaCl with or without hyaluronidase. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 24(3): 202-7.

    Karppinen J, Malmivaara A, Kurunlahti M, Kyllonen E, Pienimaki T, Nieminen P, Ohinmaa A, Tervonen O, Vanharanta H (2001a) Periradicular infiltration for sciatica: a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 26(9): 1059-67.

    Karppinen J, Ohinmaa A, Malmivaara A, Kurunlahti M, Kyllonen E, Pienimaki T, Nieminen P, Tervonen O, Vanharanta H (2001b) Cost effectiveness of periradicular infiltration for sciatica: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 26(23): 2587-95.

    Koes BW, Scholten RJ, Mens JM, Bouter LM (1995) Efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain and sciatica: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Pain, 63(3): 279-88.

    Koes BW, Scholten RJPM, Mens JMA, Bouter LM (1999) Epidural Steroid Injections for low back and sciatica: an updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Pain Digest, 9: 241-7.

    Kraemer J, Ludwig J, Bickert U, Owczarek V, Traupe M (1997) Lumbar epidural perineural injection: a new technique. Eur Spine J, 6(5): 357-61.

    Lee SH, Kim KT, Kim DH, Lee BJ, Son ES, MD , Kwack YJ. Clinical Outcomes of Cervical Radiculopathy Following Epidural Steroid Injection. A Prospective Study With Follow-up for More Than 2 Years. Spine 2012 ; 37 : 1041 – 1047.

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    McQuay HJ, Moore RA, Eccleston C, Morley S, Williams AC (1997) Systematic review of outpatient services for chronic pain control. Health Technol Assess, 1(6): i-iv, 1-135.

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    Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F (2004) Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.

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    Riew KD, Yin Y, Gilula L, Bridwell KH, Lenke LG, Lauryssen C, Goette K (2000) The effect of nerve-root injections on the need for operative treatment of lumbar radicular pain. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 82-A(11): 1589-93.

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    Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine 1997; 22: 2128-56.
14. Infiltraciones facetarias de anestésicos o corticoides

    Carette S, Marcoux S, Truchon R, Grondin C, Gagnon J, Allard Y, Latulippe M (1991) A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain. N Engl J Med, 325(14): 1002-7.

    Carette S, Leclaire R, Marcoux S, Morin F, Blaise GA, St-Pierre A, Truchon R, Parent F, Levesque J, Bergeron V, Montminy P, Blanchette C (1997) Epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica due to herniated nucleus pulposus. N Engl J Med, 336(23): 1634-40.

    Dreyfuss PH, Dreyer SJ, Herring SA (1995) Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint injections. Spine, 20(18): 2040-7.

    Levy J, Gaudin P, Pieyre C, al. e (1993) Arthrites septique articulaires posterieures lombaires. In Pathologie iatrogene du rachis., L. Siomon, M. Revel and C. Herisson, Editors. Masson: Paris. 58-68.

    Lilius G, Laasonen EM, Myllynen P, Harilainen A, Gronlund G (1989) Lumbar facet joint syndrome. A randomised clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 71(4): 681-4.

    Manchikanti L (1999) Facet Joint Pain and the Role of Neural Blockade in Its Management. Curr Rev Pain, 3(5): 348-58.

    Marks RC, Houston T, Thulbourne T (1992) Facet joint injection and facet nerve block: a randomised comparison in 86 patients with chronic low back pain. Pain, 49(3): 325-8.

    Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F (2000) Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD001824.

    Revel M, Poiraudeau S, Auleley GR, Payan C, Denke A, Nguyen M, Chevrot A, Fermanian J (1998) Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia. Proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints. Spine, 23(18): 1972-6; discussion 7.

    Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N (1994) The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain, 58(2): 195-200.
15. Infiltraciones en puntos gatillo

    Collee G, Dijkmans BA, Vandenbroucke JP, Cats A (1991) Iliac crest pain syndrome in low back pain. A double blind, randomized study of local injection therapy. J Rheumatol, 18(7): 1060-3.

    Frost FA, Jessen B, Siggaard-Andersen J (1980) A control, double-blind comparison of mepivacaine injection versus saline injection for myofascial pain. Lancet, 1(8167): 499-500.

    Garvey TA, Marks MR, Wiesel SW (1989) A prospective, randomized, double-blind evaluation of trigger-point injection therapy for low-back pain. Spine, 14(9): 962-4.

    Hameroff SR, Crago BR, Blitt CD, Womble J, Kanel J (1981) Comparison of bupivacaine, etidocaine, and saline for trigger-point therapy. Anesth Analg, 60(10): 752-5.

    Lou L, Racz GB (1998) Examinations of trigger points that produce myofascial pain syndrome. Pain Digest, 8: 364-75.

    Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F (2000) Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD001824.

    Sonne M, Christensen K, Hansen SE, Jensen EM (1985) Injection of steroids and local anaesthetics as therapy for low-back pain. Scand J Rheumatol, 14(4): 343-5.
16. Infiltraciones intradiscales (Discografía)

    Kato F, Mimatsu K, Kawawami N, Ando T (1993) Changes after the intervertebral disc after discography with intradiscal injection of corticosteroids observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Neurol Orthop Med Surg, 14: 210-6.

    Khot A, Bowditch M, Powell J, Sharp D (2004) The use of intradiscal steroid therapy for lumbar spinal discogenic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine, 29(8): 833-6; discussion 7.

    Kotilainen E, Muittari P, Kirvela O (1997) Intradiscal glycerol or bupivacaine in the treatment of low back pain. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 139(6): 541-5.

    Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F (2000) Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD001824.

    Simmons JW, McMillin JN, Emery SF, Kimmich SJ (1992) Intradiscal steroids. A prospective double-blind clinical trial. Spine, 17(6 Suppl): S172-5.
17. Infiltraciones sacroilíacas

    Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, McLarty J, Bogduk N (1996) The value of medical history and physical examination in diagnosing sacroiliac joint pain. Spine, 21(22): 2594-602.

    Kokmeyer DJ, Van der Wurff P, Aufdemkampe G, Fickenscher TC (2002) The reliability of multitest regimens with sacroiliac pain provocation tests. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 25(1): 42-8.

    Luukkainen RK, Wennerstrand PV, Kautiainen HH, Sanila MT, Asikainen EL (2002) Efficacy of periarticular corticosteroid treatment of the sacroiliac joint in non-spondylarthropathic patients with chronic low back pain in the region of the sacroiliac joint. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 20(1): 52-4.

    Maugars Y, Mathis C, Berthelot JM, Charlier C, Prost A (1996) Assessment of the efficacy of sacroiliac corticosteroid injections in spondylarthropathies: a double-blind study. Br J Rheumatol, 35(8): 767-70.

    Rosenberg JM, Quint TJ, de Rosayro AM (2000) Computerized tomographic localization of clinically-guided sacroiliac joint injections. Clin J Pain, 16(1): 18-21.

    van der Wurff P, Meyne W, Hagmeijer RH (2000) Clinical tests of the sacroiliac joint. Man Ther, 5(2): 89-96
18. Infiltraciones de toxina botulínica

    Foster L, Clapp L, Erickson M, Jabbari B (2001) Botulinum toxin A and chronic low back pain: a randomized, double-blind study. Neurology, 56(10): 1290-3

    Langevin P, Peloso PM, Lowcock J, Nolan M, Weber J, Gross A, Roberts J, Goldsmith CH, Graham N, Burnie SJ, Haines T. Botulinum toxin for subacute/chronic neck pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD008626.

    Waseem Z, Boulias C, Gordon A, Ismail F, Sheean G, Furlan AD. Botulinum toxin injections for low-back pain and sciatica. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2011, Issue 1.
19. Proloterapia (infiltraciones esclerosantes)

    Dechow E, Davies RK, Carr AJ, Thompson PW (1999) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sclerosing injections in patients with chronic low back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford), 38(12): 1255-9.

    Klein RG, Eek BC, DeLong WB, Mooney V (1993) A randomized double-blind trial of dextrose-glycerine-phenol injections for chronic, low back pain. J Spinal Disord, 6(1): 23-33.

    Nelemans PJ, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Sturmans F (2000) Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD001824.

    Ongley MJ, Klein RG, Dorman TA, Eek BC, Hubert LJ (1987) A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. Lancet, 2(8551): 143-6

    Dagenais S, Yelland MJ, Del Mar C, Schoene ML. Inyecciones de proloterapia para el dolor lumbar crónico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.
20. Rizolisis por radiofrecuencia

    Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Pauza K, Joshi A, McLarty J, Bogduk N (2000) Efficacy and validity of radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic lumbar zygapophysial joint pain. Spine, 25(10): 1270-7.

    Gallagher J, Periccione die Vadi PL, Wedley JR, Hamann W, Ryan P, Chikanza I, Kirkham B, Price, Watson RMS, Grahame R, Wood S (1994) Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a prospective controlled double-blind study to assess its efficacy. Pain Clin, 7: 193-98.

    Geurts JW, van Wijk RM, Stolker RJ, Groen GJ (2001) Efficacy of radiofrequency procedures for the treatment of spinal pain: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 394-400.

    Leclaire R, Fortin L, Lambert R, Bergeron YM, Rossignol M (2001) Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess efficacy. Spine, 26(13): 1411-6; discussion 7.

    Niemisto L, Kalso E, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S, Hurri H (2003) Radiofrequency denervation for neck and back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the cochrane collaboration back review group. Spine, 28(16): 1877-88.

    Niemisto L, Kalso E, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S, Hurri H,. Denervación por radiofrecuencia para el dolor de cuello y lumbar (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Sanders M, Zuurmond WWA (1999) Percutaneous intraarticular lumbar facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a comparison with percutaneous extraarticular lumbar facet denervation. Pain Clin, 11: 329-35.

    Shealy CN (1975) Percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of spinal facets. Treatment for chronic back pain and sciatica. J Neurosurg, 43(4): 448-51.

    van Kleef M, Barendse GA, Kessels A, Voets HM, Weber WE, de Lange S (1999) Randomized trial of radiofrequency lumbar facet denervation for chronic low back pain. Spine, 24(18): 1937-42
21. Corsés,cinturones lumbares, plantillas y alzas

    Calmels P, Fayolle-Minon I (1996) An update on orthotic devices for the lumbar spine based on a review of the literature. Rev Rhum Engl Ed, 63(4): 285-91.

    Jellema P, van Tulder MW, van Poppel MN, Nachemson AL, Bouter LM (2001) Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine, 26(4): 377-86.

    Kim HJ, Yi JM, Cho HG, et al. Comparative study of the treatment outcomes of osteoporotic compression fractures without neurologic injury using a rigid brace, a soft brace, and no brace: a prospective randomized controlled noninferiority trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014 Dec 3;96(23):1959-66.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471910

    Koes BW, Hoogen HMM van den. Efficacy of bed rest and orthoses of low back pain. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil 1994;4:86-93.

    McGill SM (1993) Abdominal belts in industry: a position paper on their assets, liabilities and use. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 54(12): 752-4.

    Negrini, MD, Minozzi, MD, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Fabio Zaina, MD, Nachiappan Chockalingam,  Theodoros B. Grivas,  Tomasz Kotwicki, , Toru Maruyama,  Michele Romano, and Elias S. Vasiliadis,  Braces for Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents. Cochrane systematic review. SPINE Volume 35, Number 13, pp 1285–1293. 2010.

    Rannisto S, Okuloff A, Uitti J, Paananen M, Rannisto PH, Malmivaara A, Karppinen J. Leg- length discrepancy is associated with low back pain among those who must stand while working. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015 May 7;16:110. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0571-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25943907

    T Sahar, MJ Cohen, V Ne'eman, L Kandel, DO Odebiyi, I Lev, M Brezis, A Lahad. Insoles for prevention and treatment of back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4

    van Duijvenbode ICD, Jellema P, van Poppel MNM, van Tulder MW. Soporte lumbar para la prevención y el tratamiento del dolor lumbar (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2008 Número 2.
22. Tracciones

    Clarke JA, van Tulder MW, Blomberg SEI, de Vet HCW, van der Heijden GJMG, Bronfort G, Bouter LM. Tracción para el dolor lumbar con o sin ciática (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Coxhead CE, Inskip H, Meade TW, North WR, Troup JD (1981) Multicentre trial of physiotherapy in the management of sciatic symptoms. Lancet, 1(8229): 1065-8.

    Larsson U, Choler U, Lidstrom A, Lind G, Nachemson A, Nilsson B, Roslund J (1980) Auto-traction for treatment of lumbago-sciatica. A multicentre controlled investigation. Acta Orthop Scand, 51(5): 791-8.

    Mathews JA, Hickling J (1975) Lumbar traction: a double-blind controlled study for sciatica. Rheumatol Rehabil, 14(4): 222-5.

    Mathews JA, Mills SB, Jenkins VM, Grimes SM, Morkel MJ, Mathews W, Scott CM, Sittampalam Y (1987) Back pain and sciatica: controlled trials of manipulation, traction, sclerosant and epidural injections. Br J Rheumatol, 26(6): 416-23.

    Pal B, Mangion P, Hossain MA, Diffey BL (1986) A controlled trial of continuous lumbar traction in the treatment of back pain and sciatica. Br J Rheumatol, 25(2): 181-3.

    Reust P, Chantraine A, Vischer TL (1988) [Treatment of lumbar sciatica with or without neurological deficit using mechanical traction. A double-blind study]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 118(8): 271-4.

    van den Hoogen HM, Koes BW, van Eijk JT, Bouter LM (1995) On the accuracy of history, physical examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in diagnosing low back pain in general practice. A criteria-based review of the literature. Spine, 20(3): 318-27.

    van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM, Terpstra-Lindeman E (1970) De effectiviteit van tractie bij lage rugklachten: de resultaten van een pilotstudy. Ned T Fysiotherapie, 2: 117-21.

    van der Heijden GJ, Beurskens AJ, Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, de Vet HC, Bouter LM (1995) The efficacy of traction for back and neck pain: a systematic, blinded review of randomized clinical trial methods. Phys Ther, 75(2): 93-104.

    Walker L, Svenkerud T, Weber H (1982) Traksjonsbehandling ved lumbago-ischias: en kontrollert undersolske med Spina-trac. Fysioterapeuten, 48: 161-3.
23. Fisioterapia (calor y frío, masajes, láser, onda corta, magnetoterapia, ultrasonidos y ondas de choque, corrientes interferenciales)
    Serrano-Aguilar P, Kovacs FM, Cabrera-Hernández JM, Ramos-Goñi JM, García-Pérez L. Avoidable costs of physical treatments for chronic back, neck and shoulder pain within the Spanish National Health Service: a cross-sectional study
Corrientes interferenciales
    Werners R, Pynsent PB, Bulstrode CJ (1999) Randomized trial comparing interferential therapy with motorized lumbar traction and massage in the management of low back pain in a primary care setting. Spine, 24(15): 1579-84
Onda corta

    Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi I, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, Mannion AF, Reis S, Staal B, Ursin H, Zanoli G. . COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for Chronic Low Back Pain. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006 Mar;15:S192-299

    Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquist RW, Atlas SJ, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Grabois M, Murphy DR, Resnick DK, Stanos SP, Shaffer WO, Wall EM; American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society.Spine 2009;34(10):1066-77.
Termoterapia (calor o frío)
    French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ. A Cochrane review of superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Apr 20;31(9):998-1006.
Masaje

    Cherkin DC, Eisenberg D, Sherman KJ, Barlow W, Kaptchuk TJ, Street J, Deyo RA (2001) Randomized trial comparing traditional Chinese medical acupuncture, therapeutic massage, and self-care education for chronic low back pain. Arch Intern Med, 161(8): 1081-8.

    Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Kahn J, Wellman R, Cook AJ, Johnson E, Erro J, Delaney K, Deyo RA. A comparison of the effects of 2 types of massage and usual care on chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Jul 5;155(1):1-9.

    Ernst E (1999) Massage therapy for low back pain: A systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage, 17: 65-9.

    Franke A, Gebauer S, Franke K, Brockow T (2000) [Acupuncture massage vs Swedish massage and individual exercise vs group exercise in low back pain sufferers--a randomized controlled clinical trial in a 2 x 2 factorial design]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 7(6): 286-93.

    Furlan AD, Brosseau L, Imamura M, Irvin E (2002) Massage for low-back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine, 27(17): 1896-910.

    Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E. Massage for low back pain: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine 2009;34(16):1669-84.

    Furlan AD, Giraldo M, Baskwill A, Irvin E, Imamura M. Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 1;9:CD001929. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26329399

    Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Krasnegor J, Theakston H (2001) Lower back pain is reduced and range of motion increased after massage therapy. Int J Neurosci, 106(3-4): 131-45.

    Hoehler FK, Tobis JS, Buerger AA (1981) Spinal manipulation for low back pain. Jama, 245(18): 1835-8.

    Hsieh CY, Phillips RB, Adams AH, Pope MH (1992) Functional outcomes of low back pain: comparison of four treatment groups in a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 15(1): 4-9.

    Hsieh LL, Kuo CH, Yen MF, Chen TH (2004) A randomized controlled clinical trial for low back pain treated by acupressure and physical therapy. Prev Med, 39(1): 168-76.

    Kalauokalani D, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA (2001) Lessons from a trial of acupuncture and massage for low back pain: patient expectations and treatment effects. Spine, 26(13): 1418-24.

    Melzack R, Vetere P, Finch L (1983) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain. A comparison of TENS and massage for pain and range of motion. Phys Ther, 63(4): 489-93.

    Patel KC, Gross A, Graham N, Goldsmith CH, Ezzo J, Morien A, Peloso PM. Massage for mechanical neck disorders Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD004871. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004871.pub4.

    Pope MH, Phillips RB, Haugh LD, Hsieh CY, MacDonald L, Haldeman S (1994) A prospective randomized three-week trial of spinal manipulation, transcutaneous muscle stimulation, massage and corset in the treatment of subacute low back pain. Spine, 19(22): 2571-7.

    Preyde M (2000) Effectiveness of massage therapy for subacute low-back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Cmaj, 162(13): 1815-20.

    van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Kuijpers T, Verhagen AP, Ostelo R, Koes BW, van Tulder MW. A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain Eur Spine J. 2011 Jan;20(1):19-39. doi: 10.1007/s00586-010-1518-3. Epub 2010 Jul 18.

    Walach H, Guthlin C, Konig M Efficacy of massage therapy in chronic pain: a pragmatic randomized trial. J Altern Complement Med, 2003;9(6): 837-46
Laserterapia

    Basford JR, Sheffield CG, Harmsen WS (1999) Laser therapy: a randomized, controlled trial of the effects of low-intensity Nd:YAG laser irradiation on musculoskeletal back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80(6): 647-52.

    Bjordal JM, Couppe C, Chow RT, Tuner J, Ljunggren EA (2003) A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. Aust J Physiother, 49(2): 107-16.

    de Bie RA, Verhagen A, de Vet HCW, Lenssen T, van den Wildenberg FAJM, Kootstra A, Knipschild PG (1998) Efficacy of 904 nm laser therapy in musculoskeletal disorders. Physical Therapy Reviews, 3: 1-14.

    Chow RT, Johnson MI, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo or active-treatment controlled trials. Lancet 2009;374:1897–1908. [Erratum in: Lancet 2010; 13;375:894.].

    Djavid G, Mehrdad R, Ghasemi M, Hasan-Sadeh H, Sotoodeh-Manesh A, Pouryaghoub G. Low level laser therapy in chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother 2007; 53:155–160.

    Gur A, Karakoc M, Cevik R, Nas K, Sarac AJ (2003) Efficacy of low power laser therapy and exercise on pain and functions in chronic low back pain. Lasers Surg Med, 32(3): 233-8.

    Klein RG, Eek BC (1990) Low-energy laser treatment and exercise for chronic low back pain: double-blind controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 71(1): 34-7.

    Konstantinovic LM, Kanjuh ZM, Milovanovic AN, et al; Acute low back pain with radiculopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Photomed Laser Surg 2010;28:553–560.

    Longo L, Tamburini A, Monti A. Treatment with 904 nm and 10600 nm laser of acute lumbago – double blind control-laser. J Eur Med Laser Ass 1991;3:16–19.

    Monticone M, Barbarino A, Testi C, Arzano S, Moschi A, Negrini S. Symptomatic efficacy of stabilizing treatment versus laser therapy for sub-acute low back pain. Eur Med Phys 2004;40:263–268.

    Soriano F, Rios R (1998) Gallium Arsenide Laser Treatment of chronic low back pain: a prospective randomised and double blind study. Laser Therapy, 10: 175-80.

    Toya S, Motegi M, Inomata K, Ohshiro T, Maeda T (1994) Report on a computer-randomized double-blind clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of the GaAIA (830 nm) diode laser for attenuation in selected pain groups. Laser Therapy, 6: 143-8

    Unlu Z, Tasci S, Tarhan S, Pabuscu Y, Islak S. Comparison of 3 physical therapy modalities for acute pain in lumbar disc herniation measured by clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2008; 31: 191–198.

    Yousefi-Nooraie R, Schonstein E, Heidari K, Rashidian A, Akbari-Kamrani M, Irani S, Shakiba B, Mortaz Hejri Sa, Mortaz Hejri So, Jonaidi A. Terapia con láser de baja intensidad para el dolor lumbar inespecífico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4
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Ultrasonido

    Kovacs F, Seco S, Urrutia G. Time to cease the use of ultrasounds for treating low back pain. Annals of Family Medicine. March/April 2013, 11 (2). Published March 25, 2013 http://www.annfammed.org/content/11/2/122/reply#annalsfm_el_2562

    Seco J, Kovacs FM, Urrutia G. The efficacy, safety, effectiveness, and cost/effectiveness of ultrasound and shock wave therapies for low back pain: A systematic review. Spine J 2011:11:966-77

    Seco J, Kovacs FM, Urrútia G. Recommendations on ultrasound for low back pain: profit-driven or evidence-based? Spine J 2012;12:360
24. Estimulación eléctrica transcutánea (TENS)

    Al-Smadi J, Warke K, Wilson I, Cramp AF, Noble G, Walsh DM, Lowe-Strong AS (2003) A pilot investigation of the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation upon low back pain in people with multiple sclerosis. Clin Rehabil, 17(7): 742-9.

    Brosseau L, Milne S, Robinson V, Marchand S, Shea B, Wells G, Tugwell P (2002) Efficacy of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis. Spine, 27(6): 596-603.

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low-back pain. 2008, Issue 4.

    Hsieh RL, Lee WC (2002) One-shot percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: comparison of therapeutic effects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 81(11): 838-43.

    Jette AM, Delitto A (1997) Physical therapy treatment choices for musculoskeletal impairments. Phys Ther, 77(2): 145-54.

    Khadilkar A, Milne S, Brosseau L, Robinson V, Saginur M, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G.. Neuroestimulación eléctrica transcutánea (TENS) para el dolor lumbar crónico (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4

    Kroeling P, Gross A, Goldsmith CH, Houghton PE, Cervical Overview Group. Electroterapia para los trastornos cervicales (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Spratt KF, Colby H, Liu YK, Fairchild ML, Christensen S (1986) Efficacy of electroacupuncture and TENS in the rehabilitation of chronic low back pain patients. Pain, 26(3): 277-90.

    Milne S, Welch V, Brosseau L, Saginur M, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G (2001) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2): CD003008.

    Philadelphia (2001) Philadelphia Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on selected rehabilitation interventions for low back pain. Phys Ther, 81(10): 1641-74.

    Sherry E, Kitchener P, Smart R (2001) A prospective randomized controlled study of VAX-D and TENS for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Neurol Res, 23(7): 780-4.

    Tsukayama H, Yamashita H, Amagai H, Tanno Y (2002) Randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of electroacupuncture and TENS for low back pain: a preliminary study for a pragmatic trial. Acupunct Med, 20(4): 175-80.

    Yokoyama M, Sun X, Oku S, Taga N, Sato K, Mizobuchi S, Takahashi T, Morita K (2004) Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for long-term pain relief in patients with chronic low back pain. Anesth Analg, 98(6): 1552-6
25.Neuroestimulación eléctrica percutánea (PENS)

    Ghoname EA, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Henderson BN, Gajraj NM, Huber PJ, Gatchel RJ (1999a) Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study. Jama, 281(9): 818-23.

    Ghoname ES, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Gajraj NM, Vakharia AS, Noe CE (1999b) The effect of stimulus frequency on the analgesic response to percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain. Anesth Analg, 88(4): 841-6.

    Hamza MA, Ghoname EA, White PF, Craig WF, Ahmed HE, Gajraj NM, Vakharia AS, Noe CE (1999) Effect of the duration of electrical stimulation on the analgesic response in patients with low back pain. Anesthesiology, 91(6): 1622-7.

    Hsieh RL, Lee WC (2002) One-shot percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: comparison of therapeutic effects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 81(11): 838-43.

    Weiner DK, Rudy TE, Glick RM, Boston JR, Lieber SJ, Morrow LA, Taylor S (2003) Efficacy of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 51(5): 599-608.

    White PF, Ghoname EA, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Craig WF, Vakharia AS (2001) The effect of montage on the analgesic response to percutaneous neuromodulation therapy. Anesth Analg, 92(2): 483-7.

    Yokoyama M, Sun X, Oku S, Taga N, Sato K, Mizobuchi S, Takahashi T, Morita K (2004) Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for long-term pain relief in patients with chronic low back pain. Anesth Analg, 98(6): 1552-6.
26.Acupuntura

    Berman BM (2001) Clinical applications of acupuncture: an overview of the evidence. J Altern Complement Med, 7 Suppl 1: S111-8.

    Bruegger A (1990)  Gesunde Koerperhaltung im Alltag.  Zuerich: Bruegger Verlag.

    Carlsson CP, Sjolund BH (2001) Acupuncture for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo-controlled study with long-term follow-up. Clin J Pain, 17(4): 296-305.

    Ceccherelli F, Gagliardi G, Barbagli P, Caravello M (2003) [Correlation between the number of sessions and therapeutical effect in patients suffering from low back pain treated with acupuncture: a randomized controlled blind study]. Minerva Med, 94(4 Suppl 1): 39-44.

    Cervical Overview Group. Acupuntura para los trastornos del cuello (Revisión Cochrane traducida). En: La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, 2007 Número 4.

    Cherkin DC, Eisenberg D, Sherman KJ, Barlow W, Kaptchuk TJ, Street J, Deyo RA (2001) Randomized trial comparing traditional Chinese medical acupuncture, therapeutic massage, and self-care education for chronic low back pain. Arch Intern Med, 161(8): 1081-8.

    Ernst E (1998) The use, efficacy, safety and costs of complementary/alternative therapies for low back pain. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 8: 53-7.

    Ernst E, White AR (1998) Acupuncture for back pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med, 158(20): 2235-41.

    Ezzo J, Berman B, Hadhazy VA, Jadad AR, Lao L, Singh BB (2000) Is acupuncture effective for the treatment of chronic pain? A systematic review. Pain, 86(3): 217-25.

    Flowerdew MW, Gadsby JG (1997) A review of the treatment of chronic low back pain with acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Complement Ther Med, 5: -2299.

    Franke A, Gebauer S, Franke K, Brockow T (2000) [Acupuncture massage vs Swedish massage and individual exercise vs group exercise in low back pain sufferers--a randomized controlled clinical trial in a 2 x 2 factorial design]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 7(6): 286-93.

    Furlan AD, van Tulder MW, CherkinD, Tsukayama H, Lao L, Koes BW, Berman BM. Acupuncture and dry-needling for low  back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. 

    Gadsby JG, Flowerdew MW (2000) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic low back pain. In The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.

    Giles LG, Muller R (1999) Chronic spinal pain syndromes: a clinical pilot trial comparing acupuncture, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 22(6): 376-81.

    Grant DJ, Bishop-Miller J, Winchester DM, Anderson M, Faulkner S (1999) A randomized comparative trial of acupuncture versus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic back pain in the elderly. Pain, 82(1): 9-13.

    Hogeboom CJ, Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC (2001) Variation in diagnosis and treatment of chronic low back pain by traditional Chinese medicine acupuncturists. Complement Ther Med, 9(3): 154-66.

    Hsieh LL, Kuo CH, Yen MF, Chen TH (2004) A randomized controlled clinical trial for low back pain treated by acupressure and physical therapy. Prev Med, 39(1): 168-76.

    Kalauokalani D, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA (2001) Lessons from a trial of acupuncture and massage for low back pain: patient expectations and treatment effects. Spine, 26(13): 1418-24.

    Kerr DP, Walsh DM, Baxter D (2003) Acupuncture in the management of chronic low back pain: a blinded randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain, 19(6): 364-70.

    Kittang G, Melvaer T, Baerheim A (2001) [Acupuncture contra antiphlogistics in acute lumbago]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 121(10): 1207-10.

    Kovacs FM, Gotzens V, Garcia A, Garcia F, Mufraggi N, Prandi D, Setoain J, San Roman F (1992) Experimental study on radioactive pathways of hypodermically injected technetium-99m. J Nucl Med, 33(3): 403-7.

    Kovacs FM, Gotzens V, Garcia A, Garcia F, Mufraggi N, Prandi D, Setoain J, San Roman F (1993) Kinetics of hypodermically injected technetium-99m and correlation with cutaneous structures: an experimental study in dogs. Eur J Nucl Med, 20(7): 585-90.

    Kovacs FM, Garcia A, Mufraggi N, Garcia F, Pavia J, Prandi D, Gotzens V, Giralt I, Piera C, Setoain J (2000) Migration pathways of hypodermically injected technetium-99m in dogs. Eur Radiol, 10(6): 1019-25.

    Leake R, Broderick JE (1998) Treatment efficacy of acupuncture: a review of the research literature. Integrative medicine, 1: -2190.

    Leggett Tait P, Brooks L, Harstall C (2002) Acupuncture: Evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses., Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research.

    Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Spratt KF, Colby H, Liu YK, Fairchild ML, Christensen S (1986) Efficacy of electroacupuncture and TENS in the rehabilitation of chronic low back pain patients. Pain, 26(3): 277-90.

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Dolor de espalda en embarazadas

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